This question tests the ability to compare writers’ ideas and perspectives, as well as how these are conveyed, across the two texts.
Give 0 marks for responses where there is nothing worthy of credit.
Give 1-2 marks to those who identify basic similarities and / or differences, e.g. both of them think that wasting food is wrong.
Give 3-4 marks to those who identify and give a straightforward description of some of the main similarities and differences, e.g. both of them think that wasting food is wrong but Child gives practical advice and Humphrys doesn’t.
Give 5-6 marks to those who identify similarities and differences and make some comparisons, commenting on how they are conveyed, e.g. both of the writers talk about specific examples of how to reduce waste; Child claims that “Nothing should be thrown away” and Humphrys half-jokingly says he is going to pick up some “horse manure” for his vegetables as “it would be such a waste to leave it there to be squashed by a car”.
Give 7-8 marks to those who make detailed comparisons, with valid comments on how they are conveyed, e.g. Child uses imperatives such as “Buy merely enough to get along with” to instruct the reader whereas Humphrys’ style is to emotionally affect the reader into agreeing with his views, “Some of us might cluck a little over the wickedness of a world in which we waste food while Ethiopian children starve”.
Give 9-10 marks to those who make comparisons that are sustained and detailed, showing clear understanding of how they are conveyed, e.g. Both writers challenge the commonly held view that economy is to be frowned upon. Humphrys is inflammatory in the language he uses in presenting these views: “if we can afford to waste things, then why the hell shouldn’t we?”, whereas Child is more formal, yet uses powerful language to convey the strength of feeling some have: “economy is despised as a low virtue”.
In addition to the examples given above, other details candidates may explore or comment on could be:
- Facts and figures (statistics / housekeeping detail)
- Differing tone (Humphrys – ironic/racy/rhetorical; Child – earnest / assertive / humourless)
- Language content (degrees of formality / informality)
- Sense of audience (effect on language choices)
- Anecdotal / specifics based on experience (both texts)
This is not a checklist and the question must be marked in levels of response. Look for and reward valid alternatives.