Expected milestones of growth and development - social

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig twf a datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Social Development

Social development includes:

  • social skills/socialisation
  • stages of social play
  • interactions and roles.

Mae datblygiad cymdeithasol yn cynnwys:

  • sgiliau cymdeithasol/cymdeithasoli
  • camau chwarae cymdeithasol
  • rhyngweithio a rolau.

Expected milestones of growth and development - social

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig twf a datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Mother and daughter

Carol and her daughter Hannah aged 18 months have just moved house to a new area.

Carol is keen for both of them to make new friends in the area.

Name one activity or opportunity that each of these places may give Carol and Hannah to socialise and make new friends.

  • local health centre
  • library
  • leisure centre
  • local park
  • community centre.

Mae Carol a'i merch Hannah, sy'n 18 mis, newydd symud tŷ i ardal newydd.

Mae Carol yn awyddus i'r ddwy ohonynt wneud ffrindiau newydd yn yr ardal.

Enwch un gweithgaredd neu gyfle y gall pob un o'r llefydd hyn eu cynnig i Carol a Hannah er mwyn cymdeithasu a gwneud ffrindiau newydd.

  • canolfan iechyd leol
  • llyfrgell
  • canolfan hamdden
  • parc lleol
  • canolfan gymunedol.

Expected milestones of growth and development - social

Social skills

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig twf a datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Sgiliau cymdeithasol

Social skills

Babies and children develop at different rates but there are certain common milestones in their social development.

Babies

By twelve months babies will know how to play favourites with individuals. They will want your attention, through handing you a book or toy or by making specific noises to have you look at them.

Toddlers

Temper tantrums are common as a toddler tries to become independent. They will pretend play, copying what the adults around them do. They will also be interested in other children, but will tend to play alongside them rather than with them.

Nursery age children

Children will be happier to be separated from a parent and play with other children at this age. They will be spontaneously kind and caring to other children at this age.

Primary age children

Children at this age are affectionate and curious, but they can also be selfish and argumentative. They can start to withdraw slightly from the family as they develop their own identity. They are aware of their gender and may prefer to play with children of the same sex.

Secondary age children

Children are becoming more independent and can become moody and want more privacy. Peer groups are important to children at this age and they can start experimenting with fashion in order to find where they fit in. They will show interests in dating at this age.

Young adults

Some young adults can struggle in social situations, possibly due to learning disabilities or through lack of self-confidence. Some can struggle to understand what a healthy relationship is and make poor choices. Others can find it difficult to know how to act appropriately in different situations. These young adults will need support to help them develop the skills they lack.

Older adults

Older individuals have had a great amount of experience of dealing with different social situations and can be better at reading other individual’s emotions and dealing with conflict. However, older individuals who have seen their social circle shrink due to illness and death may start to feel anxious in certain social situations. They can also feel a greater sense of isolation and boredom as they retire and their families are busy with their own lives.

Mae babanod a phlant yn datblygu ar raddfa wahanol ond ceir cerrig milltir cyffredin penodol o ran eu datblygiad cymdeithasol.

Babanod

Erbyn 12 mis bydd babanod yn gwybod sut i chwarae ffefrynnau gydag unigolion. Byddant am gael eich sylw, drwy roi llyfr neu degan i chi, neu drwy wneud synau penodol er mwyn i chi edrych arnynt.

Plant bach

Mae colli tymer yn beth cyffredin wrth i blentyn bach geisio dod yn annibynnol. Byddant yn chwarae dychmygu, gan ddynwared yr oedolion o'u cwmpas. Bydd ganddynt ddiddordeb mewn plant eraill hefyd, ond byddant yn dueddol o chwarae wrth eu hymyl yn hytrach na gyda nhw.

Plant oed meithrin

Bydd plant yn fwy hapus wedi'u gwahanu oddi wrth riant ac yn chwarae gyda phlant eraill yr oedran hwn. Byddant yn garedig ac yn ofalgar, a hynny'n ddigymell, gyda phlant eraill yr oedran hwn.

Plant oed cynradd

Bydd plant yr oedran hwn yn annwyl ac yn chwilfrydig, ond gallant hefyd fod yn hunanol ac yn gecrus. Gallant ddechrau encilio ychydig o'r teulu wrth iddynt ddatblygu eu hunaniaeth eu hunain. Maent yn ymwybodol o'u rhywedd ac mae'n well ganddynt chwarae gyda phlant o'r un rhyw.

Plant oed uwchradd

Mae plant yn dod yn fwy annibynnol a gallant fod mewn hwyliau drwg a dymuno cael mwy o breifatrwydd. Mae grwpiau cyfoedion yn bwysig i blant yr oedran hwn a gallant ddechrau arbrofi gyda ffasiwn er mwyn gweld ble maent yn ffitio i mewn. Byddant yn dangos diddordeb mewn detio yr oedran hwn.

Oedolion ifanc

Gall rhai oedolion ifanc ei chael hi'n anodd ymdopi mewn sefyllfaoedd cymdeithasol, o bosibl oherwydd anableddau dysgu neu ddiffyg hunanhyder. Gall rhai ei chael hi'n anodd deall beth yw perthynas iach a gwneud dewisiadau gwael. Gall eraill ei chael hi'n anodd gwybod sut i ymddwyn yn briodol mewn sefyllfaoedd gwahanol. Bydd angen i'r oedolion ifanc hyn gael cymorth er mwyn eu helpu i feithrin y sgiliau sydd ar goll.

Oedolion hŷn

Mae unigolion hŷn wedi cael llawer iawn o brofiad o ddelio â sefyllfaoedd cymdeithasol gwahanol a gallant fod yn well am ddarllen emosiynau unigolion eraill a delio â gwrthdaro. Fodd bynnag, gall unigolion hŷn sydd wedi gweld eu cylch cymdeithasol yn crebachu oherwydd salwch a marwolaeth ddechrau teimlo'n orbryderus mewn rhai sefyllfaoedd cymdeithasol. Gallant hefyd deimlo mwy o ynyswch a diflastod wrth iddynt ymddeol a bod eu teuluoedd yn brysur gyda'u bywydau eu hunain.

Expected milestones of growth and development - social

Stages of social play

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig twf a datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Cyfnodau chwarae cymdeithasol

There are six stages of social play:

Unoccupied Play (Birth-3 Months) – At this stage, babies occupy themselves by making lots of movements with their arms and legs. This play doesn’t involve them engaging with anyone else.

Solitary Play (Birth-2 Years) – This is when a baby or toddler plays alone. When involved in solitary play they do not seem to notice other infants playing nearby.

Onlooker Play (2 Years) – At this stage, toddlers will sit and watch others play and may ask questions, but will make no effort to join in with the play.

Parallel Play (2+ Years) – This is when a toddler will play alongside another child but will not involve them in their play. Even though the children don’t interact with each other they are paying attention to what the other is doing.

Associate Play (3-4 Years) – Children at this age will start to play together but they won’t have a common goal and there will be no rules established. They have just become more aware of each other rather than the toys with which they are playing. This is an important step in learning how to co-operate and share.

Cooperative Play (4+ years) – At this stage the child will have interest in others around them as well as the shared activity. Play will start to be formalised with one child taking the lead. This is when children learn the social skills of co-operation, flexibility, taking-turns and problem solving.
These are the stages of play but play can take many forms. It can be noisy, chaotic and social while it can also be quiet, focused and solitary. Because it is so varied many have attempted to categorise play behaviour into different types. Models range from just two types – free flow and structured. In playwork, in the UK, they usually refer to 16 play types.
The various play types try to describe the full range of children’s play behaviours and how they might contribute to children’s physical, mental and emotional development.

Further reading

http://www.playwales.org.uk/eng/news/848-play-types-new-info-sheet

Mae chwe chyfnod o chwarae cymdeithasol:

Chwarae Segur (Geni-3 Mis) – Ar y cam hwn, bydd babanod yn difyrru eu hunain drwy symud eu breichiau a'u dwylo gryn dipyn. Nid yw'r chwarae hwn yn cynnwys ymgysylltu ag unrhyw un arall.

Chwarae Unigol (Geni-2 Oed) – Dyma pan mae baban neu blentyn bach yn chwarae ar ei ben ei hun. Wrth chwarae'n unigol nid ymddengys eu bod yn sylwi ar blant bach eraill sy'n chwarae gerllaw.

Chwarae Arsylwi (2 Oed) – Ar y cam hwn, bydd plant bach yn eistedd ac yn gwylio eraill yn chwarae a gallant ofyn cwestiynau, ond ni fyddant yn gwneud unrhyw ymdrech i ymuno yn y chwarae.

Chwarae Cyfochrog (2+ Oed) – Bydd plentyn bach yn chwarae wrth ymyl plentyn arall ond ni fydd yn ei gynnwys yn ei chwarae. Er nad yw'r plant yn rhyngweithio â'i gilydd maent yn talu sylw i'r hyn mae'r llall yn ei wneud.

Chwarae Cyswllt (3-4 Oed) – Bydd plant yr oedran hwn yn dechrau chwarae gyda'i gilydd ond ni fydd ganddynt nod cyffredin ac ni fydd unrhyw reolau wedi'u sefydlu. Yn syml maent wedi dod yn fwy ymwybodol o'i gilydd yn hytrach na'r teganau maent yn chwarae gyda nhw. Mae hyn yn gam pwysig wrth ddysgu sut i gydweithredu a rhannu.

Chwarae Cydweithredol (4+ oed) – Ar y cam hwn bydd gan y plentyn ddiddordeb mewn eraill o'i gwmpas yn ogystal â'r gweithgaredd a rennir. Bydd chwarae yn dechrau cael ei ffurfioli gydag un plentyn yn cymryd y blaen. Dyma pryd mae plant yn dysgu sgiliau cymdeithasol cydweithredu, hyblygrwydd, cymryd tro a datrys problemau.
Dyma'r cyfnodau chwarae ond gall chwarae fod ar sawl ffurf. Gall fod yn swnllyd, yn ddi-drefn ac yn gymdeithasol, ond gall hefyd fod yn dawel, yn benodol ac yn unigol. Gan ei fod mor amrywiol, mae llawer wedi ceisio categoreiddio ymddygiad chwarae yn wahanol fathau. Mae'r modelau'n amrywio o ddau fath yn unig – llif rhydd a strwythuredig. Mewn gwaith chwarae, yn y DU, maent fel arfer yn cyfeirio at 16 o fathau o chwarae.
Mae'r mathau gwahanol o chwarae yn ceisio disgrifio'r amrywiaeth llawn o ymddygiadau chwarae sydd gan blant a sut y gallent gyfrannu at ddatblygiad corfforol, meddyliol ac emosiynol plentyn.

Darllen pellach

http://www.chwaraecymru.org.uk/cym/newyddion/848-play-types-new-info-sheet

Expected milestones of development - social

Look at the images and decide which stage of play they depict and list the social skills that are being developed.

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Edrychwch ar y delweddau a phenderfynwch pa gyfnod o chwarae a nodir a rhestrwch y sgiliau cymdeithasol sy'n cael eu datblygu.

Expected milestones of development - social

Social roles and interactions

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Rolau a rhyngweithio cymdeithasol

Social roles

As an individual grows older they realise that they can't behave exactly as they wish, but that they have to conform to certain standards and behaviour to be accepted by the society in which they live.

Depending on the group an individual is with, they can change their personality in order to fit in. For a younger individual, the most important social group will be their family, but as they grow older they will be part of a number of social groups such as friends, work colleagues and sports teams.

Social roles define where an individual believes himself or herself to be in a social structure. For instance, a young man may take on a leader role in his friendship group, but adopts a different role with his work colleagues.

In the past, individuals tended to interact face to face, but with the rise of social media, more and more young individuals are interacting online. Individuals tend to share the best vision of themselves and their lives on social media platforms, and this can lead to others feeling worthless and dissatisfied.

As individuals grow older, retire, and see their children move on with their own lives, they can feel their role in society change. This can lead to confusion, doubt about the future and anger. On the other hand, it may open up a whole new world of social interaction as they have more time to do what they love and spend time with individuals who enjoy the same things.

Wrth i unigolion heneiddio mae'n sylweddoli na all ymddwyn fel mae'n mynnu, ond bod yn rhaid cydymffurfio â safonau a mathau o ymddygiad penodol er mwyn cael ei dderbyn gan y gymdeithas mae'n byw ynddi.

Yn dibynnu ar y grŵp mae unigolyn ynddo, gall newid ei bersonoliaeth er mwyn ffitio i mewn. Yn achos unigolyn iau, y grŵp cymdeithasol pwysicaf fydd ei deulu, ond wrth iddo dyfu'n hŷn bydd yn rhan o nifer o grwpiau cymdeithasol fel ffrindiau, cydweithwyr a thimau chwaraeon.

Mae rolau cymdeithasol yn diffinio ble mae unigolyn yn credu ei fod yn perthyn yn gymdeithasol. Er enghraifft, gall dyn ifanc gymryd rôl arweiniol yn ei grŵp o ffrindiau, ond mabwysiadu rôl wahanol gyda'i gydweithwyr.

Yn y gorffennol, roedd unigolion yn dueddol o ryngweithio wyneb yn wyneb, ond gyda thwf y cyfryngau cymdeithasol, mae mwy a mwy o unigolion ifanc yn rhyngweithio ar-lein. Mae unigolion yn dueddol o rannu'r agweddau gorau arnynt eu hunain a'u bywydau ar lwyfannau'r cyfryngau cymdeithasol, a all arwain at deimlo'n ddi-werth ac yn anfodlon.

Wrth i unigolion dyfu'n hŷn, ymddeol, a gweld eu plant yn symud ymlaen gyda'u bywydau, gallant weld eu rôl mewn cymdeithas yn newid. Gall hyn arwain at ddryswch, ansicrwydd am y dyfodol a dicter. Ar y llaw arall, gall gyflwyno byd newydd sbon o ryngweithio cymdeithasol am fod ganddynt fwy o amser i wneud y pethau sydd wrth eu bodd a threulio amser gydag unigolion sy'n mwynhau gwneud yr un pethau.

Expected milestones of development - social

Watch the film and then describe how this type of social interaction can have a negative effect on an individual's health and well-being.

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Gwyliwch y ffilm ac yna disgrifiwch sut y gall y math hwn o ryngweithio cymdeithasol gael effaith negyddol ar iechyd a lles yr unigolyn.

Social interaction via sites such as Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook can have a negative impact on users due to the unrealistic postings. Many individuals only portray images or posts of a ‘perfect’ life and this can make viewers feel dissatisfied with their own lives. It can lead to feelings of insecurity and low self-esteem. Individuals can also become fixated on the number of ‘likes’ they get, feeling that they are only valued if they get a high number of likes.

Gall rhyngweithio yn gymdeithasol ar wefannau fel Snapchat, Instagram a Facebook gael effaith negyddol ar ddefnyddwyr o ganlyniad i luniau afrealistig. Mae llawer o unigolion yn dangos lluniau o fywyd ‘perffaith’ yn unig a gall hyn wneud i eraill deimlo’n anfodlon gyda’u bywydau eu hunain. Gall hyn arwain at deimladau o ansicrwydd a hunan-barch isel. Mae rhai unigolion yn canolbwyntio gormod ar y niferoedd o unigolion sy’n ‘hoffi’ eu post, gan wneud iddynt deimlo mai dyma’r unig ffordd o wybod eu bod yn cael eu gwerthfawrogi.

Expected milestones of development - social

Try to identify some social opportunities within this quiz.

Cerrig milltir disgwyliedig datblygiad – cymdeithasol

Ceisiwch nodi rhai cyfleoedd cymdeithasol yn y cwis hwn.

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