Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - social factors

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – ffactorau cymdeithasol

Group of young children smiling and having fun

A number of social and emotional factors can affect development, health and well-being.

Gender

Gender stereotypes - Even today, children can be exposed to gender based stereotypes, with shops offering girls clothes and toys and boys clothes and toys. Children and parents can face teasing and criticism if they choose to dress or play with toys that break this stereotype. For instance, if a little boy decides to play with a doll he could be told that it is a girl’s toy and not for him. To counteract this stereotype, children should be encouraged to play with whatever interests them.

Gender inequality – Women tend to live longer than men but spend fewer years in good health. The gender pay gap puts women at greater risk of living in poverty, which would affect their well-being.

Transgender - Experiences of discrimination, social exclusion, harassment and violence directly impact the health and well-being of transgender individuals. However, transitioning and being able to express gender identity may improve health and well-being.

Gall nifer o ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol effeithio ar ddatblygiad, iechyd a lles.

Rhywedd

Stereoteipiau o ran rhywedd - Hyd yn oed heddiw, gall plant ddod i gysylltiad â stereoteipiau sy'n seiliedig ar rywedd, gyda siopau yn gwerthu dillad a theganau merched a dillad a theganau bechgyn. Gall plant a rhieni wynebu tynnu coes a beirniadaeth os byddant yn dewis gwisgo neu chwarae gyda theganau sy'n herio'r fath stereoteip. Er enghraifft, os yw bachgen bach yn dewis chwarae gyda dol gellid dweud wrtho mai tegan i ferched ydyw, ac nid iddo ef. I wrthsefyll y stereoteip hwn, dylai plant gael eu hannog i chwarae gyda beth bynnag sydd o ddiddordeb iddynt.

Anghydraddoldeb rhywiol – Mae menywod yn dueddol o fyw'n hirach na dynion ond maent yn treulio llai o flynyddoedd mewn iechyd da. Mae'r bwlch cyflog rhwng y rhywiau yn golygu bod menywod yn wynebu mwy o risg o fyw mewn tlodi, a fyddai'n effeithio ar eu lles.

Trawsryweddol - Mae profi gwahaniaethu, allgáu cymdeithasol, aflonyddu a thrais yn cael effaith uniongyrchol ar iechyd a llesiant unigolion drawsryweddol. Fodd bynnag, gall trosi a mynegi hunaniaeth o ran rhywedd wella iechyd a llesiant.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - social factors

Spin the wheel and discuss the statements. What is your view?

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – ffactorau cymdeithasol

Trowch yr olwyn a thrafodwch y datganiadau. Beth yw'ch barn?

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Types of family

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Mathau o deuluoedd

Silhouette of family members holding hands at sunset
  • Single parent families – This can have positive and negative impacts on both the parent and children. Parents may feel grief and isolation when their children envy friends who have two parents. It may cause stress and anxiety due to money worries. However, it can lead to an extremely strong bond between the parent and children and the parent can be a great role model for their children.
  • Same sex families – Few differences can be found between same sex families and nuclear families (a mum, dad and children). As long as the relationship between the two parents is healthy and they love and support their children then the children will grow up feeling secure with a good sense of self-worth.
  • Nuclear families - As long as the relationship between the two parents is healthy and they love and support their children then the children will grow up feeling secure with a good sense of self-worth.
  • Foster families – Children in foster care have often been subject to abuse or neglect before reaching their foster parents. Due to this their social skills may be delayed. They may develop emotional, trust issues, and find it hard to form close relationships.
  • Stepfamilies – This type of family is becoming increasingly common. It can bring positive and negative outcomes. Children may enjoy being part of a larger family, having more children to play with and seeing their parent happy. However, they may come with unresolved issues and resent the new family set-up, leading to behavioural issues. Parents may feel a sense of relief that they have an individual to share the day to day responsibilities with, however they may suffer from stress and anxiety when trying to parent children that are not their own.
  • Childless family – this may be a lifestyle choice and can bring a great sense of well-being, as the adults choose to spend their time and money focusing on their relationship rather than children. However, if a couple are unable to have children this can place a great strain on the individuals and the relationship.
  • Teuluoedd un rhiant – Gall hyn gael effaith gadarnhaol a negyddol ar y rhiant a'r plant. Gall rhieni deimlo tristwch ac ynyswch pan fo eu plant yn genfigennus o'u ffrindiau sydd â dau riant. Gall achosi straen a phryder oherwydd problemau ariannol. Fodd bynnag, gall arwain at fond hynod gryf rhwng y rhiant a'r plant a gall y rhiant ddangos esiampl wych i'r plant.
  • Teuluoedd o'r un rhyw – Prin yw'r gwahaniaethau rhwng teuluoedd o'r un rhyw a theuluoedd niwclear (mam a dad a phlant). Cyn belled ag y bo'r berthynas rhwng y ddau riant yn iach a'u bod yn caru ac yn cefnogi eu plant, yna bydd y plant yn tyfu i fyny gan deimlo’n ddiogel, a bydd ganddynt ymdeimlad da o hunan-werth.
  • Teuluoedd niwclear - Cyn belled ag y bo'r berthynas rhwng y ddau riant yn iach a'u bod yn caru ac yn cefnogi eu plant, yna bydd y plant yn tyfu i fyny gan deimlo’n ddiogel, a bydd ganddynt ymdeimlad da o hunan-werth.
  • Teuluoedd maeth – Mae plant mewn gofal maeth yn aml wedi cael eu cam-drin neu eu hesgeuluso cyn cyrraedd eu rhieni maeth. O'r herwydd, gall eu sgiliau cymdeithasol ddatblygu'n arafach. Gallant wynebu problemau emosiynol, a chydag ymddiriedaeth, a'i chael hi'n anodd meithrin cydberthnasau agos.
  • Llys-deuluoedd – Mae'r math hwn o deulu yn dod yn fwyfwy cyffredin. Gall gael effaith gadarnhaol a negyddol. Gall plant fwynhau bod yn rhan o deulu mwy o faint, cael mwy o blant i chwarae gyda nhw a gweld eu rhiant yn hapus. Fodd bynnag, gall fod ganddynt broblemau sydd heb eu datrys, ac efallai y bydd yn gas ganddynt eu teulu newydd, gan arwain at gamymddwyn. Gall rhieni deimlo rhyddhad bod ganddynt rywun i rannu'r cyfrifoldebau beunyddiol â nhw. Fodd bynnag, gallant fod dan bwysau a theimlo'n bryderus wrth geisio rhiant plant nad ydynt yn fiolegol.
  • Teuluoedd heb blant – gall hyn fod yn ddewis o ran ffordd o fyw a gall sicrhau llawer o les, wrth i'r oedolion ddewis treulio eu hamser a gwario eu harian yn canolbwyntio ar eu perthynas, yn hytrach na'u plant. Fodd bynnag, os na all y cwpwl gael plant, gall roi llawer o bwysau ar yr unigolion a'r berthynas.

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Parenting styles

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Dulliau rhianta

Mother and teenager daughter arguing
  • Indulgent parent –This type of parenting is very loving but there is very little discipline or structure in the child’s life. Children brought up in this way, whilst very secure with high self-esteem, could tend to have a sense of entitlement and make poor decisions due to a lack of problem-solving or decision making skills.
  • Neglectful parent – This is characterised by a lack of attention to a child’s needs. These type of parents are emotionally absent and are happy to let the TV or technology babysit their children. Children brought up in this way find it difficult to form successful relationships, they can suffer anxiety and depression due to lack of family support and are at greater risk of developing behavioural problems in their adult years.
  • Authoritative parent – This type of parenting sets high expectations for their children but in a loving and supportive environment. Children are given a degree of independence within clearly defined boundaries. Children brought up in this way are self-confident and independent. They are able to form strong, healthy relationships and are less likely to be affected by peer pressure.
  • Authoritarian parent – This type of parenting also sets high expectations for their children, however, this isn’t within a loving and nurturing environment. Children are given little or no choice in decisions and their mistakes tend to be punished harshly. Children brought up in this way may grow up to associate obedience and success with love, they could be aggressive, have low self-esteem and be shy and nervous around others.
  • Rhiant maldodus – Mae'r math hwn o rianta yn gariadus iawn ond prin yw'r ddisgyblaeth na'r strwythur ym mywyd y plentyn. Gallai plant a gaiff eu magu fel hyn, er eu bod yn teimlo'n ddiogel iawn ac â lefel uchel o hunan-barch, fod yn dueddol o deimlo bod ganddynt hawl i gael rhywbeth a gwneud penderfyniadau gwael am nad oes ganddynt sgiliau datrys problemau na gwneud penderfyniadau.
  • Rhiant esgeulus – Nodweddir hyn gan ddiffyg sylw i anghenion plentyn. Mae'r math yma o riant yn absennol yn emosiynol ac yn hapus i'r teledu neu dechnoleg warchod eu plant. Mae plant a gaiff eu magu fel hyn yn ei chael hi'n anodd ffurfio cydberthnasau llwyddiannus. Gallant ddioddef o orbryder ac iselder oherwydd diffyg cefnogaeth gan y teulu ac maent yn wynebu mwy o risg o ddatblygu problemau o ran eu hymddygiad fel oedolyn.
  • Rhiant awdurdodol – Mae'r math hwn o rianta yn gosod disgwyliadau uchel i'r plant ond mewn amgylchedd cariadus a chefnogol. Caiff plant lefel o annibyniaeth o fewn ffiniau sydd wedi'u diffinio'n glir. Mae plant a gaiff eu magu fel hyn yn hunanhyderus ac yn annibynnol. Gallant ffurfio cydberthnasau cryf ac iach ac maent yn llai tebygol o fod yn agored i bwysau gan gymheiriaid.
  • Rhiant awdurdodus – Mae'r math hwn o rianta hefyd yn gosod disgwyliadau uchel i'r plant ond nid mewn amgylchedd cariadus a chefnogol. Ni chaiff y plant fawr ddim dewis, os o gwbl, o ran penderfyniadau ac mae eu camgymeriadau yn dueddol o gael eu cosbi'n llym. Gall plant a gaiff eu magu fel hyn dyfu i fyny yn cysylltu ufudd-dod a llwyddiant â chariad, gallent fod yn ymosodol, meddu ar hunan-barch isel a bod yn swil ac yn nerfus o amgylch eraill.

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Relationships

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Cydberthnasau

Summertime rooftop party
  • Parent and child – A relationship between parent and child needs to be consistent and sensitive in order to avoid any negative emotional impact. If children feel that they can rely on a parent for comfort when they are distressed they will grow up feeling that they are worthy of love and care. Children with a strong emotional bond to their parents are less likely to be influenced by peer pressure in their teens.
  • Siblings – When siblings are young, their type of relationship varies depending on age and gender. When they are young they tend to fight in physical ways but as they grow older this will develop into verbal arguments. Adult siblings tend to have relationships that fall into one of the five following categories:
    • extremely devoted, placing sibling relationship above all others
    • close and caring friends, but place a higher value on marriage and parent/child relationships
    • loyalty based on common family history, maintain regular contact, participate in family gatherings and are there in times of crisis
    • don’t really feel connected and have infrequent to no contact
    • hostility based on resentment and anger.
  • Friendships – these are important for a number of reasons and can promote health and well-being through support, boosting self-esteem, keeping individuals active and helping to have a positive approach. However, dysfunctional friendships have a negative impact on health and well-being. Friends can pressure individuals into doing things that are bad for them, and can damage their self-esteem through constant criticism.
  • Intimate and sexual relationships – This type of relationship can have a positive or negative effect on health and well-being. Individuals may tend to put on weight and take less care of their appearance once they are in a comfortable intimate relationship, however the opposite can happen, with couples motivating each other to keep fit and eat healthily. Healthy sexual relationships can reduce stress levels, but if one partner feels pressured into a sexual relationship then this can cause stress and anxiety.
  • Working relationships – Health and well-being are positively affected if an individual feels part of a community and supported by their colleagues. This develops an individual's sense of belonging and purpose and helps them feel more in control of decisions that affect them.
  • Rhiant a phlentyn – Mae angen i'r berthynas rhwng rhiant a phlentyn fod yn gyson ac yn sensitif er mwyn osgoi unrhyw effaith emosiynol negyddol. Os bydd plant yn teimlo y gallant ddibynnu ar riant am gysur pan fyddant mewn trallod byddant yn tyfu i fyny yn teimlo eu bod yn haeddu cariad a gofal. Mae plant sydd â bond emosiynol cryf â'u rhieni yn llai tebygol o fod yn agored i bwysau gan gymheiriaid yn eu harddegau.
  • Brodyr a chwiorydd – Pan fydd brodyr a chwiorydd yn ifanc, bydd eu math o berthynas yn amrywio yn dibynnu ar oedran a rhywedd. Pan yn ifanc byddant yn dueddol o ymladd mewn ffyrdd corfforol ond wrth iddynt dyfu i fyny bydd hyn yn datblygu i fod yn gweryla ar lafar. Mae brodyr a chwiorydd sy'n oedolion yn dueddol o gael cydberthnasau sy'n perthyn i un o'r pum categori canlynol:
    • hynod ffyddlon, gan osod y berthynas rhwng brodyr a chwiorydd uwchlaw pob un arall
    • ffrindiau agos a gofalgar, ond rhoddir mwy o werth ar briodas a'r berthynas rhwng y rhiant a'r plentyn
    • teyrngarwch yn seiliedig ar hanes cyffredin y teulu, cadw mewn cysylltiad rheolaidd, mynychu digwyddiadau'r teulu ac yno mewn argyfwng
    • ddim yn teimlo wedi cysylltu a braidd dim cyswllt, os o gwbl
    • gelyniaeth yn seiliedig ar ddrwgdeimlad a dicter.
  • Cyfeillgarwch – mae hyn yn bwysig am sawl rheswm a gall hybu iechyd a llesiant drwy gefnogaeth, hybu hunan-barch, cadw unigolion yn weithgar a helpu i weithredu mewn ffordd gadarnhaol. Fodd bynnag, mae cyfeillgarwch camweithredol yn cael effaith negyddol ar iechyd a lles. Gall ffrindiau roi pwysau ar unigolion i wneud pethau sy'n wael iddynt, a gallant niweidio eu hunan-barch drwy feirniadaeth gyson.
  • Cydberthnasau agos a rhywiol – Gall y math hwn o berthynas gael effaith gadarnhaol neu negyddol ar iechyd a lles. Gall unigolion fagu pwysau a chymryd llai o ofal o'u hymddangosiad pan fyddant mewn perthynas agos gyfforddus. Fodd bynnag, gall y gwrthwyneb ddigwydd, gyda chyplau yn cymell ei gilydd i gadw'n heini a bwyta'n iach. Gall cydberthnasau rhywiol iach ostwng lefelau straen, ond os bydd un partner yn cael ei roi dan bwysau i gael perthynas rywiol gall hyn achosi straen a gorbryder.
  • Cydberthnasau gwaith – Gwelir effaith gadarnhaol ar iechyd a llesiant os bydd unigolyn yn teimlo'n rhan o gymuned a'i fod yn cael ei gefnogi gan ei gydweithwyr. Mae hyn yn meithrin ymdeimlad o berthyn a diben unigolyn ac yn ei helpu i deimlo bod ganddo fwy o reolaeth o benderfyniadau sy'n effeithio arno.

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Profiadau Niweidiol yn ystod Plentyndod

Child covering their ears while parents quarrel

These traumatic experiences occur before the age of 18 and are remembered throughout adulthood.

These experiences range from suffering verbal, mental, sexual and physical abuse, to being raised in a household where domestic violence, alcohol abuse, parental separation or drug abuse is present.

Evidence shows children who experience stressful and poor quality childhoods are more likely to develop health-harming and anti-social behaviours, more likely to perform poorly in school, more likely to be involved in crime and ultimately less likely to be a productive member of society.

http://www.aces.me.uk/in-wales/

Abuse

There are many different forms of abuse and they all result in behaviour towards an individual that deliberately or intentionally cause harm. It is a violation of an individual’s human and civil rights and in the worst cases can result in death.

Abuse can be experienced by individuals throughout the life cycle.

  • Emotional abuse or psychological abuse – this can include exposing an individual to violence, modelling bad behaviour and can be name calling, shouting at or insulting an individual; threatening behaviour or threatening to take away something that is important; mocking them; swearing at them; ignoring or isolating an individual; excluding them from meaningful events or activities and failing to meet a child’s emotional needs. This can lead to a child developing mental health problems, eating disorders and can lead to self-harming.
  • Sexual abuse – any sexual activity that a child is persuaded to take part in is classed as sexual abuse. It doesn’t have to involve physical contact and a child may not realise that it is wrong at the time. This can lead to severe mental health problems and the risk of self-harm.
  • Physical abuse – This includes anything that would directly harm an individual’s physical safety. Children who are physically abused may not do well at school, become involved in criminal behaviour and may develop drug and alcohol problems. They can also suffer mental health problems. Shaking a baby can lead to serious injuries including brain damage, hearing and visual impairments, learning problems and behavioural problems.
  • Domestic abuse – This is an ongoing pattern of abusive, coercive and controlling behaviour, involving physical, sexual, emotional and financial abuse. Children who experience domestic abuse as more likely to be part of an abusive relationship as adults.
  • Neglect – This is a consistent failure to meet an individual's basic needs this may be ignoring medical, emotional or physical care needs; failure to provide access to appropriate health, care and support or educational services, withholding of the necessities of life, such as medication, adequate nutrition and heating. Children who experience neglect are more likely to get involved in crime, have alcohol or drug problems and get involved in dangerous relationships. Older or vulnerable individuals who experience neglect may have serious health issues or be in danger.

Mae'r profiadau trawmatig hyn yn digwydd cyn 18 oed a chânt eu cofio drwy gydol oedolaeth.

Mae'r profiadau hyn yn amrywio o ddioddef camdriniaeth eiriol, feddyliol, rywiol a chorfforol, i dyfu i fyny ar aelwyd lle mae trais domestig, camddefnyddio alcohol, rhieni sydd wedi gwahanu neu gamddefnyddio cyffuriau yn bodoli.

Dengys tystiolaeth fod plant sy'n profi plentyndod llawn straen ac o ansawdd gwael yn fwy tebygol o ymddwyn mewn ffyrdd niweidiol i iechyd a gwrthgymdeithasol, yn fwy tebygol o berfformio'n wael yn yr ysgol, yn fwy tebygol o fod ynghlwm wrth droseddu ac, yn y pen draw, yn llai tebygol o fod yn aelod cynhyrchiol o gymdeithas.

http://www.aces.me.uk/cymraeg/

Camdriniaeth

Mae sawl math gwahanol o gamdriniaeth ac mae pob un yn arwain at ymddwyn mewn ffyrdd sy'n niweidio unigolyn arall yn fwriadol neu'n anfwriadol. Mae'n torri hawliau dynol a sifil unigolyn ac, yn yr achosion gwaethaf, gall achosi marwolaeth.

Gall unigolion gael eu cam-drin drwy gydol eu bywyd.

  • Camdriniaeth emosiynol neu seicolegol – gall hyn gynnwys amlygu unigolyn i drais, modelu ymddygiad gwael neu galw enwau, gweiddi ar rywun neu ei sarhau; ymddwyn mewn ffordd fygythiol neu fygwth cymryd rhywbeth sy'n bwysig; eu gwatwar; rhegi arnynt; anwybyddu neu ynysu unigolyn; eu cau allan o ddigwyddiad neu weithgaredd ystyrlon a methu â diwallu anghenion emosiynol plentyn. Gall hyn arwain at ddatblygu problemau iechyd meddwl, anhwylderau bwyta a hunan-niwed yn achos plentyn.
  • Camdriniaeth rywiol – ystyrir bod unrhyw weithgaredd rhywiol y caiff plentyn ei ddarbwyllo i gymryd rhan ynddo yn gamdriniaeth rywiol. Nid oes rhaid i hyn gynnwys cyswllt corfforol ac efallai na fydd plentyn yn sylweddoli bod rhywbeth o'i le. Gall hyn arwain at broblemau iechyd meddwl difrifol a'r risg o hunan-niwed.
  • Camdriniaeth gorfforol – Mae hyn yn cynnwys unrhyw beth a fyddai'n niweidio diogelwch corfforol unigolyn yn uniongyrchol. Efallai na fydd plant a gaiff eu cam-drin yn gorfforol yn gwneud yn dda yn yr ysgol, gallant ddechrau troseddu neu gael problemau cyffuriau ac alcohol. Gallant hefyd wynebu problemau iechyd meddwl. Gall ysgwyd baban arwain at anafiadau difrifol, gan gynnwys niwed i'r ymennydd, nam ar y clyw a'r golwg, problemau dysgu a phroblemau ymddygiadol.
  • Camdriniaeth ddomestig – Mae hwn yn batrwm rheolaidd o gam-drin ac ymddygiad cymhellol sy'n rheoli, sy'n cynnwys camdriniaeth gorfforol, rywiol, emosiynol ac ariannol. Mae plant sy'n profi camdriniaeth ddomestig yn fwy tebygol o fod mewn perthynas gamdriniol fel oedolyn.
  • Esgeulustod – Methiant parhaus i ddiwallu anghenion sylfaenol unigolyn a all gynnwys anwybyddu anghenion meddygol, emosiynol neu gorfforol; methiant i sicrhau mynediad i iechyd, gofal a chymorth priodol neu wasanaethau addysgol, gwrthod hanfodion bywyd, fel meddyginiaeth, maeth digonol a gwres. Mae plant sy'n profi esgeulustod yn fwy tebygol o droseddu, cael problemau cyffuriau neu alcohol a bod yn rhan o gydberthnasau peryglus. Gall unigolion hŷn neu unigolion sy'n agored i niwed sy'n profi esgeulustod brofi problemau iechyd difrifol neu fod mewn perygl.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being – social

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – cymdeithasol

Read and consider the information from Public Health Wales on Adverse Childhood Experiences and their impact

Cymru Well Wales: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

and the importance of the first 1000 days in a child’s life

Cymru Well Wales : The first 1000 days

Make a note of the main points.

Darllenwch ac ystyriwch y wybodaeth gan Iechyd Cyhoeddus Cymru am Brofiadau Niweidiol yn ystod Plentyndod a'u heffaith

Cymru Well Wales: Profiadau Niweidiol yn ystod Plentyndod

a phwysigrwydd y mil o ddiwrnodau cyntaf ym mywyd plentyn

Cymru Well Wales : 1000 o Ddiwrnodau Cyntaf

Nodwch y prif bwyntiau.

Suggested Answers

  • ACEs are adverse childhood experiences that occur before the age of 18 and are remembered throughout adulthood
  • These can include:
    • verbal abuse
    • mental abuse
    • physical abuse
    • sexual abuse
    • witnessing domestic violence
    • witnessing adult substance abuse
    • parental separation.
  • The impact of these in later life can mean that an individual is more likely to:
    • be involved in anti-social behaviour
    • perform poorly in schools
    • be involved in crime.
  • First 1000 days from pregnancy to age of 2 are critical part of childhood
  • Children:
    • form attachments to caregivers
    • learn how to safely explore and trust the world around them
    • begin to communicate.
  • First 1000 days aims to support families so that children get an equal start in life
  • Aims:
    • optimal outcomes from every pregnancy for mother and child
    • children achieving their developmental outcomes at age 2
    • fewer children exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the first 1000 days.
  • Public sector bodies and third sector organisations will work together to achieve this.

Ateb Awgrymedig

  • ACEs yw profiadau niweidiol yn ystod plentyndod sy'n digwydd cyn 18 oed ac sy'n cael eu cofio gan unigolion drwy gydol eu cyfnod fel oedolion
  • Gallai'r rhain gynnwys y canlynol:
    • camdriniaeth eiriol
    • camdriniaeth feddyliol
    • camdriniaeth gorfforol
    • camdriniaeth rywiol
    • bod yn dyst i drais domestig
    • bod yn dyst i oedolion yn camddefnyddio sylweddau
    • rhieni'n gwahanu.
  • Gall effaith y rhain yn ddiweddarach mewn bywyd olygu bod unigolyn yn fwy tebygol o wneud y canlynol:
    • cymryd rhan mewn ymddygiad gwrthgymdeithasol
    • perfformio'n wael yn yr ysgol
    • bod yn gysylltiedig â throseddu.
  • Mae'r 1000 diwrnod rhwng beichiogrwydd hyd at 2 oed yn rhan hollbwysig o blentyndod
  • Bydd plant:
    • yn ffurfio ymlyniadau â gofalwyr
    • yn dysgu sut i archwilio'r byd o'u cwmpas yn ddiogel ac ymddiried ynddo
    • yn dechrau cyfathrebu.
  • Nod 1000 diwrnod cyntaf yw rhoi cymorth i deuluoedd er mwyn i blant cael dechrau cyfartal mewn bywyd
  • Nodau:
    • y canlyniadau gorau o bob beichiogrwydd ar gyfer y fam a'r plentyn
    • bod plant yn cyflawni eu canlyniadau datblygol erbyn eu bod yn 2 oed
    • llai o blant yn wynebu profiadau niweidiol yn ystod plentyndod (ACEs) yn ystod y 1000 diwrnod cyntaf.
  • Bydd cyrff y sector cyhoeddus a sefydliadau'r trydydd sector yn cydweithio i gyflawni hyn.

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Educational experiences

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Profiadau addysgol

Schoolchildren with their hands up to answer a question

Education can help individuals to live longer and healthier lives. The well-being of everyone within a learning community can be positively developed by fostering a safe, caring, supportive, purposeful environment that enables the development of relationships based on mutual respect

Schools and colleges have a critical role in supporting students to make healthy lifestyle choices and to understand consequences on lifelong health and well-being.

However, if educational experiences are affected by bullying, problems with learning, or feeling unable to fit in, then an individual’s well-being can be negatively affected.

Students can suffer mental health problems when studying for exams such as anxiety and depression.

Gall addysg helpu unigolion i fyw bywydau hirach ac iachach. Gall llesiant pawb mewn cymuned ddysgu gael ei ddatblygu'n gadarnhaol drwy greu amgylchedd diogel, gofalgar, cefnogol a phwrpasol sy'n fodd i ddatblygu cydberthnasau ar sail parch rhwng y naill a'r llall.

Mae gan ysgolion a cholegau rôl hanfodol i'w chwarae i helpu myfyrwyr i wneud dewisiadau ffordd o fyw iach a deall canlyniadau ar iechyd a llesiant gydol oes.

Fodd bynnag, os bydd bwlio, problemau dysgu, neu fethu â ffitio i mewn yn effeithio ar brofiadau addysgol, gall hyn gael effaith negyddol ar les unigolyn.

Gall myfyrwyr ddioddef problemau iechyd meddwl wrth astudio ar gyfer arholiadau, fel gorbryder ac iselder.

Social and emotional factors affecting development

Employment

Ffactorau cymdeithasol ac emosiynol sy'n effeithio ar ddatblygiad

Cyflogaeth

People in the office working together

Employment

Being employed is good for health and well-being. It allows individuals to:

  • have the means to develop themselves
  • have a sense of pride and personal achievement
  • socialise, and find support
  • have structure and purpose to their day
  • be physically and mentally active
  • have money to support themselves and their family and explore their interests.

Unemployment

Individuals who are unemployed are more likely to:

  • have poorer physical and mental health overall
  • consult their GP more
  • be more likely to be admitted to hospital
  • have higher death rates.

Work related stress

If the demands of a job are greater than the employee’s ability to cope then this can lead to work related stress. This can lead to anxiety and depression.

Cyflogaeth

Mae bod mewn swydd yn dda i iechyd a lles. Mae'n galluogi unigolion i:

  • ddatblygu eu hunain
  • teimlo balchder a chyflawniad personol
  • cymdeithasu, a chael cefnogaeth
  • cael strwythur a diben i'w diwrnod
  • bod yn weithgar yn gorfforol ac yn feddyliol
  • cael arian i gefnogi eu hunain a'u teulu a mwynhau diddordebau.

Diweithdra

Mae unigolion di-waith yn fwy tebygol o:

  • brofi iechyd corfforol a meddyliol gwaeth yn gyffredinol
  • gweld eu meddyg teulu yn amlach
  • cael eu derbyn i'r ysbyty
  • marw.

Straen sy'n gysylltiedig â gwaith

Os bydd gofynion swydd yn drech na gallu cyflogai i ymdopi, gall hyn arwain at straen sy'n gysylltiedig â gwaith. Gall arwain at orbryder ac iselder.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - social

Cultural and racial diversity

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – cymdeithasol

Amrywiaeth ddiwylliannol a hiliol

Culture

Culture is a set of ideas, customs and behaviours shared by particular individuals or society.

It can affect how a group of individuals think of health, illness and death, causes of diseases, where they seek help and the types of treatment they want. All of these things can influence health and well-being.

Young individuals from different cultural backgrounds can feel caught between two sets of cultural standards and values due to cultural views on sexuality, relationships, gender roles, education and employment. They can feel restricted in their choice of friends, and dating can cause family conflict.

Racial diversity

Race refers to an individual's race, colour, nationality and ethnic or national origins.

Some races have a higher chance of certain diseases, for instance sickle cell anaemia is more prominent in Africans, Asians, Middle Eastern individuals and East Europeans.

Mental health issues can arise due to racism, which can lower an individual’s self-esteem, and confidence, which can lead to individuals withdrawing from contact with others, or being afraid of going to school or work. This will increase the risk of problems such as depression, anxiety and substance use.

Diwylliant

Mae a wnelo diwylliant â set o syniadau, arferion a ffyrdd o ymddwyn a rennir gan grŵp o unigolion neu gymdeithas benodol.

Gall effeithio ar y ffordd mae grŵp o unigolion yn meddwl am iechyd, salwch a marwolaeth, achosion clefyd, ble i gael help a'r mathau o driniaeth maent am ei chael. Gall yr holl bethau hyn ddylanwadu ar iechyd a lles.

Gall unigolion ifanc o wahanol gefndiroedd diwylliannol deimlo eu bod wedi'u dal rhwng dwy set o safonau a gwerthoedd diwylliannol, oherwydd safbwyntiau diwylliannol yn ymwneud â rhywioldeb, cydberthnasau, rolau o ran rhywedd, addysg a chyflogaeth. Gallant deimlo'n rhwystredig o ran eu dewis o ffrindiau, a gall detio achosi gwrthdaro o fewn y teulu.

Amrywiaeth hiliol

Mae hil yn cyfeirio at hil, lliw, cenedligrwydd a tharddiad ethnig neu genedlaethol unigolyn.

Mae ambell hil yn wynebu risg uwch o gael rhai clefydau, er enghraifft mae anemia y crymangelloedd yn fwy cyffredin ymhlith unigolion Affricanaidd, Asiaid, unigolion o'r Dwyrain Canol ac unigolion o Ddwyrain Ewrop.

Gall problemau iechyd meddwl ddeillio o hiliaeth, a all ostwng lefel hunan-barch a hyder unigolyn, a all arwain at unigolion yn osgoi cael cyswllt ag eraill, neu fod ofn mynd i'r ysgol neu'r gwaith. Bydd hyn yn cynyddu'r risg o broblemau fel iselder, gorbryder a defnyddio sylweddau.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - social

Case studies

For each of the scenarios below identify the impact of the situation on the individuals’ social and emotional growth and development and what could be done to support them.

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant - cymdeithasol

Astudiaethau achos

Ar gyfer pob un o'r senarios isod, nodwch effaith y sefyllfa ar allu'r unigolion i dyfu a datblygu'n gymdeithasol ac yn emosiynol, a beth y gellid ei wneud i'w cefnogi.

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