Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - economic

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – economaidd

Sterling notes and coins

A number of economic factors can affect development, health and well-being. These are things to do with money and include:

  • Income
  • Savings
  • Bills
  • Debt
  • Material possessions.

Economic factors affect the way individuals physical needs are met and can also affect their intellectual, emotional and social needs too.

Wages/Salary

This is the money earned from employment.

There is a direct link between the amount of money parents earn and how well their children do in school at an early age. It is claimed that children from lower income families do less well at school and have poorer health than the children from wealthier families have. This in turn can lead to less job opportunities and lower income when these children reach adulthood.

This may be because of factors such as a poor diet, a lack of access to goods and services that aid child development and reduced access to good play areas.

For adults, managing on a low income can be stressful and feeling at the bottom of the social ladder can have negative effects on self-esteem. Individuals on lower income are more likely to adopt unhealthy lifestyles such as smoking and drinking, whilst individuals on a high income are able to afford healthier lifestyles. This leads to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes.

Children whose parents are unemployed and rely solely on benefits can feel that their life chances are limited. They tend to do less well at school and can suffer with self-esteem problems and stress.

Benefits

This is government support provided for individuals of any income level but it is mainly intended to ensure that those on lower income can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare benefits attempt to provide poorer individuals with a minimal level of well-being, which may be benefit payments (e.g. child benefit, housing benefit, income support) or a free, or a subsidised-supply of certain goods (e.g. baby milk).

Gall nifer o ffactorau economaidd effeithio ar iechyd a lles unigolyn, yn ogystal â'r ffordd mae'n datblygu. Mae'r rhain yn bethau sy'n ymwneud ag arian ac yn cynnwys:

  • Incwm
  • Cynilion
  • Biliau
  • Dyled
  • Eiddo materol.

Mae ffactorau economaidd yn effeithio ar y ffordd mae anghenion corfforol unigolion yn cael eu diwallu a gallant hefyd effeithio ar eu hanghenion deallusol, emosiynol a chymdeithasol hefyd.

Cyflog

Dyma'r arian sy'n cael ei ennill drwy waith.

Mae cysylltiad uniongyrchol rhwng faint o arian mae rhieni yn ei ennill a pha mor dda mae eu plant yn ei wneud yn yr ysgol o oedran cynnar. Honnir nad yw plant o deuluoedd incwm isel yn gwneud cystal yn yr ysgol a bod eu hiechyd yn waeth na phlant o deuluoedd mwy cyfoethog. Gall hyn yn ei dro arwain at lai o gyfleoedd gwaith a llai o incwm pan fydd y plant hyn yn oedolion.

Gall hyn fod oherwydd ffactorau fel deiet gwael, diffyg mynediad i nwyddau a gwasanaethau sy'n helpu plant i ddatblygu a llai o fynediad i ardaloedd chwarae da.

I oedolion, gall ymdopi ar incwm isel beri straen a gall teimlo fel eich bod ar waelod yr ysgol gymdeithasol gael effaith negyddol ar hunan-barch. Mae pobl ar incwm is yn fwy tebygol o fabwysiadu ffyrdd o fyw afiach, fel ysmygu ac yfed, tra bod pobl ar incwm uchel yn gallu fforddio byw bywydau iachach. Mae hyn yn cynyddu'r risg o glefyd y galon, strôc, canser a diabetes.

Gall plant sydd â rhieni di-waith, sy'n dibynnu'n gyfan gwbl ar fudd-daliadau, deimlo mai prin yw eu cyfleoedd mewn bywyd. Nid ydynt yn dueddol o wneud cystal yn yr ysgol a gallant ddioddef problemau gyda hunan-barch a straen.

Budd-daliadau

Cymorth gan y llywodraeth yw hyn ar gyfer unigolion ag incwm o unrhyw lefel, ond y prif nod yw sicrhau bod pobl ar incwm isel yn gallu diwallu eu hanghenion dynol sylfaenol fel bwyd a llety. Mae budd-daliadau lles yn ceisio sicrhau bod gan yr unigolion tlotaf lefel sylfaenol o lesiant, a all fod yn fudd-daliadau (e.e. budd-dal plant, budd-dal tai, cymhorthdal incwm) neu gyflenwad am ddim neu â chymhorthdal o rai nwyddau (e.e. llaeth baban).

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - economic

Savings, bills and debt

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – economaidd

Cynilion, biliau a dyled

Man sat at the table with his head in his hands looking at paperwork

Savings – when individuals have an amount of money left over after all expenses have been met they are able to save some. Saving money provides psychological security and gives protection for unexpected circumstances. It can reduce stress if there is an emergency as individuals have the money they need.

Bills – this can be essential payments for rent for housing, council taxes, fuel, food, transport costs.

Debts – these are as a result of borrowing money to buy a house (mortgage) or an expensive piece of equipment, or from unpaid bills.

Individuals in the lowest income groups are more likely to have no savings, be behind on their bills and have high levels of debt.

Those high levels of debt can have a negative impact on health and well-being because:

  • individuals can end up paying back far more than they borrowed and their repayments can mean they don’t have sufficient income to take care of themselves and their family properly
  • individuals can find that they have less access to financial services such as having a bank account, or they have to pay more to use these services
  • families can breakdown because of the stress caused by debt
  • health can be affected by less access to healthy food and exercise opportunities and illnesses brought on by stress
  • mental health problems such as depression and anxiety can occur due to worries about debt.

Cynilion – pan fydd gan unigolion arian dros ben ar ôl talu am bopeth gallant gynilo mwy. Mae cynilo yn darparu sicrwydd seicolegol ac yn cynnig lefel o ddiogelwch mewn amgylchiadau annisgwyl. Gall leihau straen os bydd argyfwng oherwydd bydd gan unigolion yr arian os bydd ei angen.

Biliau – gall hyn fod yn daliadau hanfodol ar gyfer rhent, trethi cyngor, tanwydd, bwyd, costau trafnidiaeth.

Dyledion – mae'r rhain o ganlyniad i fenthyca arian i brynu tŷ (morgais) neu gyfarpar drud, neu o filiau heb eu talu.

Mae pobl yn y grwpiau incwm isaf yn fwy tebygol o fod heb unrhyw gynilion o gwbl, bod ar ei hôl hi wrth dalu biliau a bod mewn mwy o ddyled.

Gall y lefelau uchel hynny o ddyled gael effaith negyddol ar iechyd a lles oherwydd:

  • gall pobl orfod ad-dalu llawer mwy na'r swm a fenthyciwyd a gall eu had-daliadau olygu nad oes ganddynt ddigon o incwm i ofalu amdanynt eu hunain na'u teulu'n iawn
  • gall fod gan unigolion lai o fynediad i wasanaethau ariannol fel cyfrif banc, neu mae'n rhaid iddynt dalu mwy i ddefnyddio'r gwasanaethau hyn
  • gall teuluoedd chwalu dan bwysau dyled
  • gall y ffaith bod llai o fynediad i fwyd iach a chyfleoedd i ymarfer corff effeithio ar iechyd, a gall straen arwain at salwch
  • gall problemau iechyd meddwl fel iselder a gorbryder ddigwydd os bydd unigolyn yn poeni am ddyled.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - economic

Poverty

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – economaidd

Tlodi

Sterling notes and coins

Poverty generally means that an individual has a very low income and can't afford to pay for essentials for living.

According to the Poverty and Social Exclusion organisation the following groups are vulnerable to poverty:

  • single parents on benefits
  • the young unemployed
  • low-paid workers supporting a family
  • adults who are disabled
  • single pensioners.

Poverty can negatively affect health, development and well-being in the following ways:

Poverty in childhood

  • babies born to mothers in poverty tend to weigh less than children born to mothers with money
  • children are more likely to suffer from chronic illnesses such as asthma
  • children are more likely to have diet-related problems such as malnutrition, obesity and tooth decay
  • poor children are three times more likely to develop mental health problems compared to more affluent children
  • it can stop parents from providing a supportive environment for their children to grow up in
  • children born in poverty are more at risk of developing long term life-limiting illnesses as they grow older.

Poverty in adulthood

  • cardiovascular disease, diabetes and arthritis are more common in adults living in poverty
  • mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and schizophrenia are more common.

Poverty in later adulthood

  • poor individuals may develop life limiting illnesses earlier in life than individuals with money
  • pensioners in poverty are more likely to experience social isolation and mental health problems such as depression.

Yn gyffredinol mae tlodi'n golygu bod gan unigolyn incwm isel iawn ac na all fforddio talu am hanfodion bywyd.

Yn ôl y Sefydliad Tlodi ac Allgáu Cymdeithasol mae'r grwpiau canlynol yn agored i dlodi:

  • rhieni sengl ar fudd-daliadau
  • pobl ifanc ddi-waith
  • gweithwyr ar gyflogau isel sy'n cefnogi teulu
  • oedolion anabl
  • pensiynwyr sengl.

Gall tlodi gael effaith negyddol ar iechyd a lles, a datblygiad, yn y ffyrdd canlynol:

Tlodi mewn plentyndod

  • mae babanod a enir i famau mewn tlodi yn dueddol o bwyso llai na phlant a enir i famau ag arian
  • mae plant yn fwy tebygol o ddioddef salwch cronig fel asthma
  • mae plant yn fwy tebygol o wynebu problemau sy'n gysylltiedig â deiet fel diffyg maeth, gordewdra a phydredd dannedd
  • mae plant tlawd deirgwaith yn fwy tebygol o ddatblygu problemau iechyd meddwl o gymharu â phlant mwy cefnog
  • gall atal rhieni rhag darparu amgylchedd cefnogol i'w plant dyfu i fyny ynddo
  • mae plant sy'n cael eu geni mewn tlodi yn wynebu mwy o risg o ddatblygu salwch hirdymor sy'n cyfyngu ar fywyd wrth iddynt heneiddio.

Tlodi fel oedolyn

  • mae clefyd cardiofasgwlaidd, diabetes ac arthritis yn fwy cyffredin ymhlith oedolion sy'n byw mewn tlodi
  • mae problemau iechyd meddwl fel iselder, gorbryder a sgitsoffrenia yn fwy cyffredin.

Tlodi yn ddiweddarach mewn bywyd

  • gall pobl dlawd ddatblygu salwch sy'n cyfyngu ar fywyd yn gynharach mewn bywyd nag unigolion ag arian
  • mae pensiynwyr sy'n byw mewn tlodi yn fwy tebygol o brofi ynyswch cymdeithasol a phroblemau iechyd meddwl fel iselder.

Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - economic

Want vs Need

Sort these statements into columns based on what you think is a need and what you think we just want. There is no check facility. You need to explain your choices.

Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dyfu a datblygu – economaidd

Eisiau / Angen

Rhowch y datganiadau hyn mewn colofnau yn seiliedig ar yr hyn rydym ei angen a'r hyn rydym ei eisiau yn eich barn chi. Nid oes cyfleuster gwirio. Bydd angen i chi esbonio eich dewisiadau.

      Factors affecting growth, development and well-being - economic

      Want vs Need

      Ffactorau sy'n effeithio ar dwf, datblygiad a llesiant – economaidd

      Eisiau / Angen

      Watch the first 1:48 minutes of this video – What do the Welsh Government think we need in order to live happy and healthy lives?

      Gwyliwch 1:48 munud cyntaf y fideo hwn - Ym marn Llywodraeth Cymru, beth sydd ei angen arnom er mwyn byw bywydau hapus ac iach?

      • Health services to support her throughout her life
      • A good education – starting at home
      • A good job where she feels happy and prosperous
      • To live in a more Equal Wales
      • A community that has everything she will need to thrive
      • The community will need to be attractive, safe and supportive
      • The ability to engage in the arts
      • The ability to engage through the medium of Welsh
      • Physical activity
      • The community needs to promote good health
      • Fresh water, clean air and healthy food.
      • Gwasanaethau iechyd i'w chefnogi ar hyd ei bywyd
      • Addysg dda – gan ddechrau yn y cartref
      • Swydd dda lle mae hi'n teimlo'n hapus ac yn ffynnu
      • I fyw mewn Cymru sy'n fwy cyfartal
      • Cymuned lle mae ganddi bopeth mae ei hangen arni i ffynnu
      • Bydd angen i'r gymuned fod yn atyniadol, diogel a chefnogol
      • Y gallu i ymwneud â'r celfyddydau
      • Y gallu i gymryd rhan drwy gyfrwng y Gymraeg
      • Gweithgarwch corfforol
      • Mae angen i'r gymuned hybu iechyd da
      • Dŵr ffres, aer glân a bwyd iach.