The meaning of the term child-centred approaches and the importance of child-centred approaches

Ystyr y term plentyn-ganolog a phwysigrwydd dulliau gweithredu plentyn-ganolog

girl with painted hands

If the setting has adopted a method of working that reflects the 'child-centred' approach, it will always put the child at the centre of the learning process and meet the needs of each individual child. This means looking at things from the child's perspective, allowing them to participate in planning activities and events within the society.

A central focus on the child can involve looking at the child's interests and the experiences they've already received, and listening to their ideas. The children will then become part of the planning. The childcare worker's role is to give the children choices. This is a basis to ensure that the child develops independently to be able to form their own opinion.

  • Children and young people learn by receiving direct experiences that help them to develop confidently.
  • Early years provision has been influenced by this approach as the Government has adopted the seven core aims of working.

You have already studied United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child articles, and adults working with children and young people are duty-bound to ensure that these rights are central to each child's daily life.

Why is the 'child-centred' approach important?

  • it concentrates on the child as an individual
  • it looks at things from the child's perspective
  • it gives the child an opportunity to learn through experiences
  • the child will learn by doing
  • listening to children will teach them that their ideas are valued
  • the child will get a feeling of belonging by taking part in activity planning
  • the child will get access to a variety of activities
  • the child's holistic development will be addressed
  • it enables the child to make decisions and solve problems
  • it allows the child to develop confidently and independently
  • it contributes to self-respect so the child can feel comfortable with who they are
  • the child develops an understanding of the self and the surrounding world.

Further reading

https://bit.ly/2x0cxu6

Os yw’r lleoliad wedi mabwysiadu dull o weithio sy’n ystyried y dull plentyn-ganolog, mae bob amser yn rhoi’r plentyn yng nghanol y broses dysgu gan gwrdd ag anghenion pob plentyn unigol. Golyga hyn fod rhaid edrych ar bethau o bersbectif y plentyn sy’n caniatáu iddynt gymryd rhan wrth gynllunio gweithgareddau a digwyddiadau o fewn y gymdeithas.

Wrth ganolbwyntio ar y plentyn yn ganolog gellir edrych ar ddiddordebau’r plentyn, y profiadau maent eisoes wedi derbyn a gwrando ar eu syniadau. Trwy wneud hyn bydd y plant yn rhan o’r cynllunio. Rôl yr ymarferwr yw rhoi dewisiadau i’r plant. Mae hyn yn sail ar gyfer sicrhau bod y plentyn yn datblygu’n annibynnol i fedru llunio barn ei hunan

  • Mae plant a phobl ifanc yn dysgu trwy dderbyn profiadau uniongyrchol sydd yn eu helpu i ddatblygu’n hyderus.
  • Mae darpariaeth y blynyddoedd cynnar wedi cael ei ddylanwadu gan y modd yma o weithredu gan fod y Llywodraeth wedi mabwysiadu’r saith nod craidd o weithio.

Rydych eisoes wedi astudio erthyglau Confensiwn Cenhedloedd Unedig ar Hawliau’r Plentyn ac mae gan oedolion sy’n gweithio gyda phlant a phobl ifanc ddyletswydd i sicrhau fod yr hawliau yma yn ganolog i fywyd dyddiol pob plentyn.

Pam mae dull gweithredu ‘plentyn - ganolog’ yn bwysig?

  • mae’n canolbwyntio ar y plentyn fel unigolyn
  • mae’n edrych ar bethau trwy bersbectif y plentyn
  • mae’n rhoi cyfle i’r plentyn ddysgu trwy brofiadau
  • bydd y plentyn yn dysgu trwy wneud
  • wrth wrando ar y plentyn bydd yn dysgu bod rhywun yn rhoi gwerth i’w syniadau
  • caiff y plentyn deimlad o berthyn trwy gymryd rhan mewn cynllunio gweithgareddau
  • caiff y plentyn fynediad at amrywiaeth o weithgareddau
  • rhoddir sylw i ddatblygiad cyfannol y plentyn
  • mae’n galluogi’r plentyn i wneud penderfyniadau a datrys problemau
  • mae’n caniatáu’r plentyn i ddatblygu’n hyderus ac yn annibynnol
  • mae’n cyfrannu at hunan-barch er mwyn i’r plentyn deimlo’n gyffyrddus gyda phwy ydynt
  • mae’r plentyn yn datblygu dealltwriaeth o’i hun a’r byd o’i gwmpas.

Darllen pellach

https://bit.ly/2x0cxu6

Why is the ‘child-centred’ approach important?

Drag the words from the list and put them in the correct space in the sentences.

Pam mae dull gweithredu ‘plant- ganolog’ yn bwysig?

Llusgwch y geiriau o’r rhestr a’u gosod yn y bwlch cywir yn y brawddegau.

Your Answers

  1. It concentrates on the child as an individual.
  2. It looks at things from the child's perspective.
  3. It gives the child an opportunity to learn through experiences.
  4. The child will learn by doing.
  5. Listening to children will teach them that their ideas are valued.
  6. The child will get a feeling of belonging by taking part in activity planning.
  7. The child will get access to a variety of activities.
  8. The child-centred approach looks at the child's holistic development.
  9. It will enable the child to make decisions and solve problems.
  10. It allows the child to develop confidently and independently.
  11. It contributes to self-esteem so the child can feel comfortable with who they are.
  12. The child will develop an understanding of the self and the surrounding world.

Correct answers

  1. It concentrates on the child as an individual.
  2. It looks at things from the child's perspective.
  3. It gives the child an opportunity to learn through experiences.
  4. The child will learn by doing.
  5. Listening to children will teach them that their ideas are valued.
  6. The child will get a feeling of belonging by taking part in activity planning.
  7. The child will get access to a variety of activities.
  8. The child-centred approach looks at the child's holistic development.
  9. It will enable the child to make decisions and solve problems.
  10. It allows the child to develop confidently and independently.
  11. It contributes to self-esteem so the child can feel comfortable with who they are.
  12. The child will develop an understanding of the self and the surrounding world.

Eich ateb

  1. Mae’n canolbwyntio ar y plentyn fel unigolyn.
  2. Mae’n edrych ar bethau trwy bersbectif y plentyn.
  3. Mae’n rhoi cyfle i’r plentyn ddysgu trwy brofiadau.
  4. Bydd y plentyn yn dysgu trwy wneud.
  5. Wrth wrando ar y plentyn bydd yn dysgu bod rhywun yn rhoi gwerth ar ei syniadau.
  6. Bydd y plentyn yn cael y teimlad o berthyn trwy gymryd rhan mewn cynllunio gweithgareddau.
  7. Caiff y plentyn fynediad at amrywiaeth o weithgareddau.
  8. Mae dull plentyn-ganolog yn edrych ar ddatblygiad cyfannol y plentyn.
  9. Bydd yn galluogi’r plentyn i wneud penderfyniadau a datrys problemau.
  10. Mae’n caniatáu’r plentyn i ddatblygu’n hyderus ac yn annibynnol.
  11. Mae’n cyfrannu at hunan-barch er mwyn i’r plentyn deimlo’n gyffyrddus gyda phwy ydynt.
  12. Bydd y plentyn yn datblygu dealltwriaeth o’i hun a’r byd o’i gwmpas.

Atebion cywir

  1. Mae’n canolbwyntio ar y plentyn fel unigolyn.
  2. Mae’n edrych ar bethau trwy bersbectif y plentyn.
  3. Mae’n rhoi cyfle i’r plentyn ddysgu trwy brofiadau.
  4. Bydd y plentyn yn dysgu trwy wneud.
  5. Wrth wrando ar y plentyn bydd yn dysgu bod rhywun yn rhoi gwerth ar ei syniadau.
  6. Bydd y plentyn yn cael y teimlad o berthyn trwy gymryd rhan mewn cynllunio gweithgareddau.
  7. Caiff y plentyn fynediad at amrywiaeth o weithgareddau.
  8. Mae dull plentyn-ganolog yn edrych ar ddatblygiad cyfannol y plentyn.
  9. Bydd yn galluogi’r plentyn i wneud penderfyniadau a datrys problemau.
  10. Mae’n caniatáu’r plentyn i ddatblygu’n hyderus ac yn annibynnol.
  11. Mae’n cyfrannu at hunan-barch er mwyn i’r plentyn deimlo’n gyffyrddus gyda phwy ydynt.
  12. Bydd y plentyn yn datblygu dealltwriaeth o’i hun a’r byd o’i gwmpas.

Joint working

Gweithio ar y cyd wrth weithio gyda phlant a’u teuluoedd/gofalwyr

Disabled child and carers

'Joint working' means working together to ensure the child's needs are met.

To work in a professional way, it's important to build a good relationship with children and their families/carers.

When cooperating with children it's important to respond to their requirements and pay attention to individual needs. This will allow the children to feel at home which contributes to the development of their self-confidence. Effective communication promotes a positive environment with the aim of providing the best service to children and young people.

The parent/carer is usually the child's primary carer and they know more about the child than anyone else. They have an understanding of what their children can do and are an integral part of their children's learning process.

When a child starts attending an early years setting perhaps parents/carers might feel left out. It's important that the childcare worker involves them in decisions about their children. Confident communication is needed when discussing the children's progress. This will make them feel respected and valued. Parents/carers have a lot to offer as they have skills and experiences that can be shared.

  • Parents/carers will have to trust you to care for their children, so you must ensure a good relationship with them from the very beginning. This will benefit the children and the parents/carers will feel happy and confident to cooperate with you and leave their children with you.
  • To maintain that relationship with the home, you must listen to parents/carers and respect their views and wishes, along with their right to privacy.
  • Any issues arising with the child or any successes should be carefully noted and shared between the carers and parents/carers.
  • Information comes from ensuring good communication and a good working relationship between care team and parents/carers.
  • This may involve having a key worker. A key worker has knowledge of and responsibility for specific children. Important information should then be shared within the care setting.

Mae gweithio ar y cyd yn golygu gweithio gyda’i gilydd er mwyn sicrhau cwrdd ag anghenion y plentyn.

Os am weithio mewn ffordd broffesiynol mae’n bwysig adeiladu perthynas dda gyda phlant a’u teuluoedd/gofalwyr.

Wrth gydweithio gyda phlant mae’n bwysig ymateb i’w gofynion gan roi sylw i anghenion unigol. Bydd hyn yn caniatáu’r plant i deimlo’n gartrefol sydd yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygu eu hunanhyder. Mae cyfathrebu effeithiol yn hybu amgylchedd positif gyda’r nod o ddarparu’r gwasanaeth orau i blant a phobl ifanc.

Y rhiant/gofalwr, rhan amlaf yw gofalwr cyntaf y plentyn ac maent yn gwybod mwy am y plentyn na neb arall. Mae ganddynt ddeallusrwydd o’r hyn mae eu plant yn medru gwneud ac maent yn rhan annatod o broses dysgu eu plant.

Pan fydd plentyn yn cychwyn mewn lleoliad blynyddoedd cynnar efallai bydd y rhieni/gofalwyr yn teimlo eu bod yn cael eu gadael allan. Mae’n bwysig bod yr ymarferwr yn eu cynnwys wrth wneud penderfyniadau am eu plant. Mae angen medru cyfathrebu’n hyderus wrth drafod cynnydd y plant. Trwy hyn byddant yn teimlo eu bod yn cael eu parchu a’u gwerthfawrogi. Mae gan rieni/gofalwyr lawer i’w gynnig gan eu bod yn meddu ar sgiliau a phrofiadau y gellir eu rhannu.

  • Bydd rhieni/gofalwyr'n gorfod ymddiried ynoch chi i ofalu am eu plant, felly rhaid ichi gael perthynas dda â'r rhieni/gofalwyr o'r cychwyn cyntaf. Bydd hyn o fudd i'r plant a bydd y rhieni/gofalwyr'n teimlo'n hapus ac yn hyderus i gydweithio â chi a gadael eu plant gyda chi.
  • Er mwyn cynnal y berthynas honno â'r cartref, rhaid i chi wrando ar rieni/gofalwyr a pharchu eu safbwyntiau a'u dymuniadau, yn ogystal â'u hawl i gyfrinachedd.
  • Dylid nodi unrhyw broblemau sydd yn codi gyda’r plentyn neu unrhyw lwyddiannau'n ofalus a'u rhannu rhwng y gofalwyr a'r rhieni/gofalwyr.
  • Ceir gwybodaeth drwy sicrhau cyfathrebu da a pherthynas weithio dda rhwng y tîm gofal a'r rhieni/gofalwyr.
  • Gall hyn olygu cael gweithiwr allweddol. Gweithiwr allweddol yw rhywun sydd â'r wybodaeth am blant penodol ac sy'n gyfrifol amdanynt. Yna, dylid rhannu gwybodaeth bwysig o fewn y lleoliad gofal.

Joint working

Drag the words from the list and put them in the correct space in the sentences.

Gweithio ar y cyd

Llusgwch y geiriau o’r rhestr a’u gosod yn y bwlch cywir yn y brawddegau.

Your Answers

  1. It's important to build a good relationship with children and their parents/carers.
  2. When cooperating with children it's important to respond to their requirements and pay attention to individual needs.
  3. The parent/carer is usually the child's primary carer and they know more about the child than anyone else.
  4. The parent/carer is an integral part of their children's learning process.
  5. It's important that the childcare worker involves parents/carers in decisions about their children.
  6. Good cooperation will allow the children to feel at home which contributes to the development of their self-confidence.
  7. Effective communication promotes a positive environment with the aim of providing the best service to children and young people.
  8. The key worker has knowledge of and responsibility for specific children.

Correct answers

  1. It's important to build a good relationship with children and their parents/carers.
  2. When cooperating with children it's important to respond to their requirements and pay attention to individual needs.
  3. The parent/carer is usually the child's primary carer and they know more about the child than anyone else.
  4. The parent/carer is an integral part of their children's learning process.
  5. It's important that the childcare worker involves parents/carers in decisions about their children.
  6. Good cooperation will allow the children to feel at home which contributes to the development of their self-confidence.
  7. Effective communication promotes a positive environment with the aim of providing the best service to children and young people.
  8. The key worker has knowledge of and responsibility for specific children.

Eich ateb

  1. Mae’n bwysig adeiladu perthynas dda gyda phlant a rhieni/gofalwyr.
  2. Wrth gydweithio gyda phlant mae’n bwysig ymateb i’w gofynion gan roi sylw i anghenion unigol.
  3. Y rhiant/gofalwr, rhan amlaf yw gofalwr cyntaf y plentyn ac maent yn gwybod mwy am y plentyn na neb arall.
  4. Mae’r rhiant/gofalwr yn rhan annatod o broses dysgu eu plant.
  5. Mae’n bwysig fod yr ymarferwr yn cynnwys rhieni/gofalwyr wrth wneud penderfyniadau am eu plant.
  6. Bydd cydweithio da yn caniatáu'r plant i deimlo’n gartrefol sydd yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygu eu hunanhyder.
  7. Mae cyfathrebu effeithiol yn hybu amgylchedd positif gyda’r nod o ddarparu’r gwasanaeth gorau i blant a phobl ifanc.
  8. Y gweithiwr allweddol yw rhywun sydd â'r wybodaeth am blant penodol ac sy'n gyfrifol amdanynt.

Atebion cywir

  1. Mae’n bwysig adeiladu perthynas dda gyda phlant a rhieni/gofalwyr.
  2. Wrth gydweithio gyda phlant mae’n bwysig ymateb i’w gofynion gan roi sylw i anghenion unigol.
  3. Y rhiant/gofalwr, rhan amlaf yw gofalwr cyntaf y plentyn ac maent yn gwybod mwy am y plentyn na neb arall.
  4. Mae’r rhiant/gofalwr yn rhan annatod o broses dysgu eu plant.
  5. Mae’n bwysig fod yr ymarferwr yn cynnwys rhieni/gofalwyr wrth wneud penderfyniadau am eu plant.
  6. Bydd cydweithio da yn caniatáu'r plant i deimlo’n gartrefol sydd yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygu eu hunanhyder.
  7. Mae cyfathrebu effeithiol yn hybu amgylchedd positif gyda’r nod o ddarparu’r gwasanaeth gorau i blant a phobl ifanc.
  8. Y gweithiwr allweddol yw rhywun sydd â'r wybodaeth am blant penodol ac sy'n gyfrifol amdanynt.

Have a voice. Have a choice. Have control.

Cael llais. Cael dewis. Cael rheolaeth.

children hugging

Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child states 'Children have the right to say what they think should happen, when adults are making decisions that affect them, and to have their opinions taken into consideration.

https://bit.ly/2Inv1eL

It's important that every child has the opportunity to have their say, make choices and take control in order to be able to influence service provision. If children are listened to and given freedom to make decisions, they will grow independently to be able to control their learning. Children and young people who are given freedom can concentrate and enjoy what they do. The childcare worker's role is to listen to the child's voice to understand their needs and choices. They need to communicate openly with children and young people and be willing to adjust their practices to accept the opinions of others.

How can children and young people voice their opinion?

  • filling in questionnaires
  • conducting groups with the opportunity for informal discussion of opinions or ideas
  • various workshops and competitions
  • suggestion boxes
  • school council.

This will provide many benefits for children and young people, including:

  • opportunities to build communication and decision-making skills
  • opportunities to learn and have fun
  • having a voice that influences provisions
  • gaining self-respect as others respect their ideas.

Further reading

http://youngwales.wales/

National Participation Standards ensure that children and young people have a voice and a choice.

https://bit.ly/2Xmt8XW

Dywed Erthygl 12 o Gonfensiwn y Cenhedloedd Unedig ar Hawliau’r Plentyn ‘Mae gan blant yr hawl i ddweud eu barn ynghylch yr hyn a ddylai ddigwydd pan fo oedolion yn gwneud penderfyniadau sy’n effeithio arnyn nhw, ac i’w barn gael ei hystyried’.

https://bit.ly/2IPWiWi

Mae’n bwysig bod pob plentyn yn cael cyfle i leisio eu barn, gwneud dewisiadau a chymryd rheolaeth er mwyn gallu dylanwadu ar ddarpariaeth gwasanaethau. Trwy wrando ar lais y plentyn a rhoi rhyddid iddynt wneud penderfyniadau byddant yn tyfu’n annibynnol i fedru rheoli eu dysgu. Wrth roi rhyddid i blant a phobl ifanc byddant yn canolbwyntio a mwynhau'r hyn maent yn gwneud. Rôl yr ymarferwr yw gwrando ar lais y plentyn er mwyn deall eu hanghenion a’u dewisiadau. Mae angen cyfathrebu yn agored gyda phlant a phobl ifanc, a bod yn barod i addasu arfer i dderbyn barn eraill.

Sut gall plant a phobl ifanc leisio eu barn?

  • trwy lenwi holiaduron
  • cynnal grwpiau ble bydd cyfle i drafod barn neu syniadau yn anffurfiol
  • gweithdai a chystadlaethau amrywiol
  • gyda blychau awgrymiadau.
  • cyngor ysgol.

Bydd hyn yn rhoi llawer o fuddion i blant a phobl ifanc, gan gynnwys:

  • cyfleoedd i feithrin sgiliau cyfathrebu a gwneud penderfyniadau
  • cyfleoedd i ddysgu a chael hwyl
  • cael llais sy’n dylanwadu ar ddarpariaethau
  • ennill hunan-barch wrth i eraill barchu eu syniadau.

Darllen pellach

http://www.cymruifanc.cymru/

Mae Safonau Cyfranogiad Cenedlaethol yn sicrhau bod plant a phobl ifanc yn cael llais a chael dewis.

https://bit.ly/2Xmt8XW

Have a voice. Have a choice. Have control.

Drag the provision to match their correct description.

Cael llais. Cael dewis. Cael rheolaeth.

Llusgwch y ddarpariaeth i’r disgrifiad cywir.

Provision

Darpariaeth

Description

Disgrifiad

Correct answers

Atebion cywir

        The importance of knowing a child’s preferences and background

        Pwysigrwydd gwybod beth yw cefndir pletyn a’i ddewisiadau

        happy children

        It's essential that children and young people's care worker knows their background to be able to provide appropriately for them.

        A child’s background can include a unique mix of the child’s experience, history, culture, beliefs, preferences, family/carers relationships, informal networks and community.

        Getting to know children and young people's background will enable you to understand their circumstances and consider what's best for them. The most important person in a child's life is the parent/carer. Parents/carers' wishes, traditions, culture and beliefs must be respected, even if they're different to our beliefs. A child’s background can include a unique mix of the child’s experience, history, culture, beliefs, preferences, family/carers relationships, informal networks and community.

        Experiences: Not all children have had much of an opportunity to learn through their experiences and it's important that childcare workers give children and young people these opportunities. However, some children have extensive experiences that need to be acknowledged in order to expand their learning.

        Language: Children's language will vary depending on their cultural background. Some children can communicate using more than one language while others have difficulty coping with using one language confidently. The aim is to ensure understanding to be able to communicate effectively.

        Culture and beliefs: Children come from a number of different cultural backgrounds and the childcare worker has a role to ensure that they meet everyone's needs. Getting to know their culture allows their traditions to be celebrated as these are meaningful to them.

        Family/carers structure: How families/carers live can vary and this can influence the lives of children and young people. Family/carers structure can include:

        • Nuclear family/carers - a family/carers group where only parents live with the children.

        • Extended family/carers - where parents and other family/carers members live together.

        • One parent family/carers - where one parent/carer cares for the children.

        • Same-sex family/carers - where a same-sex couple cares for the children.

        • Adoptive family/carers - where children have been adopted or fostered.

        • Reorganised family/carers - where children may live with one biological parent and a step-parent, half-brothers and sisters.

        • Communal family/carers - where children live in communes with their parents.

        • Nomadic family/carers - families/carers that travel from one place to another with their children.

        Choices: Not every child and young person likes having choices. It's important that children have opportunities to adopt this skill as it will increase their self-confidence which in turn contributes towards their self-esteem.

        Mae’n hanfodol bod gweithiwr gofal plant a phobl ifanc yn gwybod beth yw eu cefndir er mwyn medru darparu yn briodol ar eu cyfer. Gall cefndir amrywio i gynnwys profiadau’r plentyn, iaith, diwylliant, credoau, strwythur teuluol a’r dewisiadau mae plant yn gwneud.

        Mae dod i adnabod cefndir plant a phobl ifanc yn eich galluogi i ddeall eu hamgylchiadau ac ystyried beth sy’n bwysig iddynt. Y person pwysicaf ym mywyd plentyn yw'r rhiant/gofalwr. Rhaid parchu dymuniadau, traddodiadau, diwylliant a chredoau'r rhieni/gofalwyr, hyd yn oed os ydynt yn wahanol i'n credoau ni. Oes angen bwlch rhwng "wahanol" ac "i'n"?

        Profiadau: Nid yw pob plentyn wedi cael llawer o gyfle i ddysgu trwy eu profiadau ac mae’n bwysig bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn rhoi'r cyfleodd yma i blant a phobl ifanc. Serch hynny mae gan rai plant brofiadau helaeth sydd angen eu cydnabod er mwyn ehangu eu dysgu.

        Iaith: Mae iaith plant yn amrywio ac yn dibynnu ar eu cefndir diwylliannol. Mae rhai plant yn medru cyfathrebu trwy ddefnyddio mwy nag un iaith tra bod eraill yn cael anhawster ymdopi â defnyddio un iaith yn hyderus. Y nod yw sicrhau deallusrwydd i fedru cyfathrebu’n effeithiol.

        Diwylliant a chredoau: Mae plant yn dod o nifer o gefndiroedd diwylliannol gwahanol ac mae gan yr ymarferwr rôl i sicrhau eu bod yn cwrdd ag anghenion pawb. Trwy adnabod eu diwylliant gellir dathlu eu traddodiadau gan fod y rhain yn ystyrlon iddynt hwy.

        Strwythur teuluol: Gwelir amrywiaeth o ran sut mae teuluoedd/gofalwyr yn byw a gall hyn ddylanwadu ar fywydau plant a phobl ifanc. Gall y strwythur teulu/gofalwyr gynnwys;

        • Teulu/gofalwyr cnewyllol - grŵp teuluol lle mae rhieni yn unig yn byw gyda’r plant.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr estynedig - lle mae rhieni ac aelodau eraill o’r teulu/gofalwyr yn byw gyda’i gilydd.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr un rhiant/gofalwr - lle mae un rhiant/gofalwr yn gofalu am y plant.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr o’r un rhyw - cwpl o’r un rhyw sy’n gofalu am y plant.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr mabwysiadol - lle mae’r plant wedi cael eu mabwysiadu neu faethu.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr ad-drefnedig - lle gall blant fyw gydag un rhiant/gofalwr naturiol a llys-riant/gofalwr, hanner-brodyr a chwiorydd

        • Teulu/gofalwyr cymunedol - lle mae’r plant yn byw mewn comiwnau gyda'u rhieni.

        • Teulu/gofalwyr nomadig - teuluoedd/gofalwyr sy’n teithio o fan i fan gyda’u plant.

        Dewisiadau: Nid yw pob plentyn a phobl ifanc yn hoffi cael dewisiadau. Mae’n bwysig bod plant yn cael cyfleoedd i fabwysiadu’r sgil hwn gan y bydd yn cynyddu eu hunanhyder sydd yn ei dro yn cyfrannu tuag at eu hunan-barch.

        The importance of knowing a child’s preferences and background

        As well as different cultures, children and young people live in different family/carers structures. This shows children how everyone's backgrounds can differ.

        Drag the family/carers type to match their correct description

        Pwysigrwydd gwybod beth yw cefndir pletyn a’i ddewisiadau

        Yn ogystal â diwylliannau gwahanol mae plant a phobl ifanc yn byw o fewn strwythur teuluol gwahanol. Mae hyn yn dangos i blant sut mae cefndiroedd pawb yn medru gwahaniaethu.

        Llusgwch y math o deulu/gofalwyr i’r disgrifiad cywir.

        Family/carers type

        Math o deulu/gofalwyr

        Description

        Disgrifiad

        Correct answers

        Atebion cywir

              Discovering children and young people's backgrounds enables us to successfully prepare resources and activities for them.

              Drag the family/carers type to match their correct description.

              Ffyrdd o weithio er mwyn pennu dymuniadau, dewisiadau a chefndiroedd plant

              Llusgwch y math o deulu/gofalwyr i’r disgrifiad cywir.

              child and teacher

              A child's background can vary to include experiences, language, culture, beliefs, family/carers structure and decisions made by children.

              Experiences: Children need an opportunity to role play and assess risks for themselves in order to learn from their mistakes. They need to actively participate in their learning in order to be able to learn for themselves. It's important to encourage children to be creative, enjoy all the resources and play a different role in their play. Children will often find learning hard if they haven't had an opportunity to play.

              Language: The child's language and communication skills need to be developed to a level that will enable them to actively participate in their learning. This can be done by sharing books and giving children an opportunity to discuss the characters. Picture books without words are an opportunity for children to make up a story to expand their language. Books and stories are a good way of drawing attention to different cultures e.g. images showing a minority ethnic group in traditional cultural situations. Bilingual books are also available to spark the interest of children and parents/carers.

              Culture and beliefs: Children learn amongst their families/carers during the early years and are then influenced by friends, childcare workers and teachers. Exhibitions can be created to reflect different cultures in order to convey positive imagery to children and young people. It must be ensured that each child contributes to the exhibition. Music is a good way of allowing children to enjoy a variety of songs from all over the world.

              This way of working with children gives them positive results and so it's important to acknowledge their wishes, choices and backgrounds.

              • Each child's needs must be considered, this includes their developmental stage, their interests as individuals, and their cultural, emotional and social needs.
              • A professional worker needs to be aware of diversity and how to promote positive imagery to help children and families/carers to feel positive and build their self-respect.
              • At a nursery, it's easy to introduce children to the idea that everyone is an individual, so it's important to have toys and books that reflect a variety of races and home backgrounds to help the children to feel positively about differences.

              Wrth ddarganfod cefndir plant a phobl ifanc gellir paratoi adnoddau a gweithgareddau yn llwyddiannus ar eu cyfer. Gall cefndir plentyn amrywio i gynnwys profiadau, iaith, diwylliant, credoau, strwythur teuluol a’r dewisiadau mae plant yn gwneud.

              Profiadau: Nid yw pob plentyn wedi cael llawer o gyfle i ddysgu trwy eu profiadau ac mae’n bwysig bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn rhoi'r cyfleoedd hyn i blant a phobl ifanc. Mae angen i blant gael cyfle i chwarae rôl ac asesu risgiau eu hunain er mwyn dysgu o’u camgymeriadau. Mae angen iddynt gymryd rhan weithredol yn eu dysgu er mwyn gallu dysgu dros eu hunain. Mae'n bwysig annog plant i fod yn greadigol, mwynhau’r holl adnoddau a chymryd rôl wahanol o fewn eu chwarae. Yn aml, bydd plant yn ei chael hi'n anodd dysgu os nad ydynt wedi cael cyfle i chwarae.

              Iaith: Mae iaith plant yn amrywio ac yn dibynnu ar eu cefndir diwylliannol. Mae rhai plant yn medru defnyddio mwy nag un iaith yn hyderus tra bod eraill yn cael anhawster ymdopi â dysgu un iaith. Mae angen datblygu sgiliau iaith a chyfathrebu’r plentyn i’r lefel a fydd yn eu galluogi i gymryd rhan weithredol yn eu dysgu. Gellir gwneud hyn trwy rannu llyfrau ble caiff blant gyfle i drafod y cymeriadau. Mae llyfrau lluniau heb eiriau yn gyfle i blant wneud stori i fyny er mwyn ymestyn eu hiaith. Mae llyfrau a storïau yn ffordd dda o dynnu sylw at ddiwylliannau gwahanol e.e. darluniau yn dangos grŵp ethnig lleiafrifol mewn sefyllfaoedd diwylliannol traddodiadol. Hefyd mae’n bosib cael llyfrau dwyieithog i annog diddordeb plant a rhieni/gofalwyr.

              Diwylliant a chredoau: Mae plant yn dod o nifer o gefndiroedd diwylliannol gwahanol ac mae gan yr ymarferwr rôl i sicrhau eu bod yn cwrdd ag anghenion pawb. Mae plant yn dysgu ymysg eu teuluoedd/gofalwyr yn ystod y blynyddoedd cynnar ac yna maent yn cael eu dylanwadu gan ffrindiau, gweithwyr gofal plant ac athrawon. Gellir creu arddangosfeydd sy’n adlewyrchu diwylliannau gwahanol er mwyn cyfleu delweddau cadarnhaol i blant a phobl ifanc. Rhaid sicrhau bod pob plentyn yn cyfrannu tuag at yr arddangosfa. Mae cerddoriaeth yn ffordd dda i ganiatáu plant i fwynhau amrywiaeth o ganeuon ar draws y byd.

              Mae’r ffordd o weithio gyda phlant yn rhoi canlyniadau positif iddynt ac felly mae’n bwysig cydnabod eu dymuniadau, dewisiadau a'u cefndiroedd angen atalnod.

              • Rhaid meddwl am anghenion pob plentyn: eu cam datblygiad, eu diddordebau fel unigolion, a'u hanghenion diwylliannol, emosiynol a chymdeithasol.
              • Fel gweithiwr proffesiynol, bydd angen bod yn ymwybodol o amrywiaeth a sut mae hybu delweddau cadarnhaol er mwyn helpu plant a theuluoedd/gofalwyr i deimlo'n bositif a meithrin eu hunan-barch.
              • Mewn meithrinfa, mae'n rhwydd cyflwyno plant i'r syniad bod pawb yn unigolyn, felly mae'n bwysig cael teganau a llyfrau sy'n adlewyrchu amrywiaeth o hiliau a chefndiroedd cartref er mwyn helpu'r plant i deimlo'n bositif am wahaniaethau.

              Discovering children and young people's backgrounds enables us to successfully prepare resources and activities for them.

              Ffyrdd o weithio er mwyn pennu dymuniadau, dewisiadau a chefndiroedd plant

              Establishing the wishes, preferences and backgrounds of children

              Read the following scenarios and enter your comments in the appropriate space. Consider how the description can affect a child's confidence and development.

              When you think you know the answer, click on the letters used to spell out the word. If you are correct that letter will turn green and will appear on the dashed line. If you are incorrect the letter will turn red and you will lose a life. You have 5 lives available to complete the activity.

              Ffyrdd o weithio i benderfyny ar ddymuniadau, dewisiadau a chefndiroedd plant

              Darllenwch y sefyllfaoedd isod a chofnodwch eich sylwadau yn y man priodol. Cofiwch ystyried yr effaith gall y disgrifiad gael ar hyder a datblygiad plentyn.

              QuestionCwestiwn Your ResponseEich Ymateb Suggested ResponseYmateb Awgrymedig

              Suggested Response:

              Ymateb Awgrymedig:

              Treating children with dignity and respect and why this is central to the role of early years and childcare worker

              Trin plant ag urddas a pharch a pham mae hyn yn ganolog i rôl gweithiwr blynyddoedd cynnar a gofal plant

              cooperative play

              Every child is different. Their needs and understanding vary, which can affect their self-respect. They have specific interests which need attention and by knowing their interests they will develop independence to make choices. By knowing children and young people's needs and extending and supporting their learning, the childcare worker will treat them with dignity and respect. This will enable the children to know themselves and develop confidently.

              Children and young people will develop the knowledge that other people also have different needs and abilities. If the childcare worker talks, listens and thinks of other views around them, children and young people will learn a lot about how to build positive attitudes and values.

              Childcare workers can treat children with dignity and respect by:

              • showing sensitivity
              • respecting the child as an individual
              • ensuring that the child achieves
              • encouraging children to be independent
              • respecting culture and beliefs
              • respecting the choice of language used
              • praising children for their achievements
              • encouraging children to express their thoughts and ideas
              • being enthusiastic and supportive
              • providing challenging activities
              • praising children as they attempt to be independent
              • ensuring that children and young people trust you
              • listening to them to build a relationship
              • ensuring their safety.

              Mae pob plentyn yn wahanol. Mae eu hanghenion a’u dealltwriaeth yn amrywio sydd yn medru cael effaith ar eu hunan-barch. Mae ganddynt ddiddordebau penodol sydd angen cael sylw a thrwy adnabod eu diddordebau byddant yn datblygu annibyniaeth i wneud dewisiadau. Trwy adnabod anghenion plant a phobl ifanc ac ymestyn a chefnogi eu dysgu bydd yr ymarferwr yn eu trin ag urddas a pharch. Bydd hyn yn galluogi’r plant i adnabod eu hunain a datblygu yn hyderus.

              Bydd plant a phobl ifanc yn datblygu’r deallusrwydd bod gan bobl eraill hefyd anghenion a galluoedd gwahanol. Os yw’r ymarferwr yn siarad, gwrando a meddwl am safbwyntiau eraill o’u cwmpas bydd plant a phobl ifanc yn dysgu llawer am y ffordd o feithrin agweddau a gwerthoedd cadarn.

              Gall gweithwyr gofal plant drin plant ag urddas a pharch fel hyn:

              • dangos sensitifrwydd
              • parchu’r plentyn fel unigolyn
              • sicrhau bod y plentyn yn cyflawni
              • annog plant i fod yn annibynnol
              • parchu diwylliant a chredoau
              • parchu’r dewis o iaith a ddefnyddir
              • canmol plant am eu cyflawniadau
              • annog plant i fynegi eu meddyliau a’u syniadau
              • bod yn frwdfrydig a chefnogol
              • darparu gweithgareddau heriol
              • canmol plant wrth iddynt geisio bod yn annibynnol
              • sicrhau bod plant a phobl ifanc yn ymddiried ynddoch
              • gwrando arnynt er mwyn adeiladu perthynas
              • sicrhau eu bod yn ddiogel.

              Treating children with dignity and respect and why this is central to the role of early years and childcare worker.

              Trin plant ag urddas a pharch a pham mae hyn yn ganolog i rôl gweithiwr blynyddoedd cynnar a gofal plant

              Ways of working that support child-centred approaches

              Ffyrdd o weithio sy’n cefnogi dulliau gweithredu plentyn-ganolog

              cooperative play

              It's important that childcare workers use the child-centred approach routinely. You have already learned how this approach has a positive effect on children and young people and its effective implementation is essential in every care setting for children and young people. Listed below are ways of working that support child-centred approaches.

              • You MUST ensure that you recognise the rights of the child set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.
              • You MUST focus on the child at all times and make their needs and interests paramount.
              • You MUST build a good relationship with children and their families/carers.
              • You MUST not think that children are not competent enough to succeed. They must be given the opportunity to prove that they can make sensible decisions.
              • You MUST look at your teaching method. Putting the responsibility for learning in the child's hands will allow them to look at what skills are needed to solve problems.
              • You MUST listen to the child.
              • There MUST be a balance of activities prepared by the adult and activities prepared by the child.
              • Each child MUST be treated fairly ensuring that everyone is included.
              • Each child MUST be respected and valued.

              Mae’n bwysig bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn arfer y dull gweithredu plentyn-ganolog yn rheolaidd. Rydych eisoes wedi dysgu sut mae’r dull hwn yn cael effaith bositif ar blant a phobl ifanc ac mae’n hanfodol ei fod yn cael ei fewn osod yn effeithiol ym mhob lleoliad gofal plant a phobl Ifanc.

              • RHAID sicrhau eich bod yn cydnabod hawliau’r plentyn sydd wedi’u nodi yng Nghonfensiwn y Cenhedloedd Unedig ar Hawliau’r Plentyn.
              • RHAID canolbwyntio ar y plentyn bob amser gan roi ei anghenion a'i ddiddordebau yn flaenllaw.
              • RHAID adeiladu perthynas dda gyda’r plant a’u teuluoedd/gofalwyr.
              • RHAID peidio meddwl nad yw plant yn gymwys i lwyddo. Rhaid rhoi cyfle iddynt brofi eu bod yn medru gwneud penderfyniadau synhwyrol.
              • RHAID edrych ar eich dull o addysgu. Mae rhoi cyfrifoldeb y dysgu yn nwylo’r plentyn yn caniatáu iddo edrych ar ba sgiliau sydd angen wrth ddatrys problemau.
              • RHAID gwrando ar y plentyn.
              • RHAID cael cydbwysedd o weithgareddau sydd wedi’u paratoi gan yr oedolyn a gweithgareddau sydd wedi’u paratoi gan y plentyn.
              • RHAID trin pob plentyn yn deg gan sicrhau fod pawb yn cael eu cynnwys.
              • RHAID parchu a gwerthfawrogi pob plentyn.

              Ways of working that support child-centred approaches

              Click on the answer you think is correct. The ‘next question’ button works when you have clicked on the correct amount of answers for that question.

              Ffyrdd o weithio sy’n cefnogi dulliau gweithredu plentyn-ganolog

              Rhowch gynnig ar y dasg ganlynol trwy glicio a'r y dewis cywir. Mae’r botwm ‘cwestiwn nesaf’ yn gweithio pan rydych chi wedi clicio ar y nifer gywir o atebion ar gyfer y cwestiwn hwnnw.

              Activities and experiences

              Gweithgareddau a phrofiadau

              onlooker play

              Activities and Experiences

              'Activity' means completing a specific task. It's done as an individual or in a group.

              'Experiences' means the process of observing, discovering or coming across something for the first time. The experience will be reinforced as the child comes across the same experience again, time after time. They will persevere with the task if they didn't succeed the first time.

              The Children's Rights Charter specifies that every child should have the right to learn, play, relax and enjoy.

              https://bit.ly/2RpuSu1

              A child-centred approach may be taken by building particular skills:

              • giving the child choices
              • not giving too many instructions
              • ensuring a variety of resources
              • allowing children to choose resources
              • not setting out resources/ materials - let the child choose and find out if they're suitable
              • plenty of materials to develop ideas
              • asking open questions
              • choosing books to read and songs to sing
              • encouraging children
              • choosing their play friends
              • exploring for themselves
              • not finishing sentences for the children
              • although the child needs to follow a specific theme; there should not be too much structure
              • not being unreasonable with the child if they haven't done as intended
              • allowing the child to express themselves
              • enjoying the process is more important than the end product.

              Gweithgareddau a Phrofiadau

              Ystyr ‘gweithgaredd’ yw cyflawni tasg benodol. Rhywbeth sy’n cael ei wneud fel unigolyn neu mewn grŵp.

              Ystyr ‘profiadau’ yw'r broses o arsylwi, darganfod neu ddod ar draws rhywbeth am y tro cyntaf. Bydd y profiad yn cael ei atgyfnerthu wrth i’r plentyn ddod ar draws yr un profiad eto, dro ar ôl tro. Byddant yn dyfalbarhau gyda’r dasg os na wnaethant lwyddo y tro cyntaf.

              Mae'r Siarter Hawliau Plant yn nodi y dylai pob plentyn gael yr hawl i ddysgu, chwarae, ymlacio a mwynhau.

              https://bit.ly/2RpuSu1

              Gellir defnyddio dull plentyn-ganolog trwy feithrin sgiliau penodol:

              • rhoi dewisiadau i’r plentyn
              • peidio rhoi gormod o gyfarwyddiadau
              • sicrhau bod yna amrywiaeth o adnoddau
              • gadael i blant ddewis adnoddau
              • peidio gosod adnoddau/ defnyddiau allan- gadewch y plentyn ddewis er mwyn darganfod a ydynt yn addas
              • digon o ddefnyddiau i ddatblygu syniadau
              • holi cwestiynau agored e.e. sut mae’r mwd yn y gegin fwd wedi sychu?
              • dewis llyfrau i ddarllen a chaneuon i’w canu
              • annog plant
              • dewis ei ffrindiau chwarae
              • archwilio dros ei hunain ei hunan neu eu hunain
              • peidio gorffen brawddegau i’r plant
              • er bod angen i’r plentyn ddilyn thema benodol; ni ddylid defnyddio gormod o strwythur
              • peidio bod yn afresymol gyda’r plentyn os nad yw wedi gwneud yr hyn a fwriadwyd
              • gadael i’r plentyn fynegi ei hun
              • mwynhau’r broses sy’n bwysig yn hytrach na’r cynnyrch ar y diwedd.

              Activities and experiences

              It's important that children play a central part in activities and experiences. Complete the activity to show your understanding of how to ensure this.

              Gweithgareddau a phrofiadau

              Mae’n bwysig bod plant yn ganolog wrth gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a phrofiadau. Cwblhewch y weithgaredd i ddangos eich dealltwriaeth o sut y gallwch sicrhau hyn.

              How can the 'child-centred' approach be implemented successfully to the following activity/experiences?

              Sut gall y dull 'plentyn-ganolog' gael ei roi ar waith yn llwyddiannus yn y gweithgaredd/profiadau canlynol?

              Activity/ExperiencesGweithgaredd/Profiadau Your ResponseEich Ymateb Suggested ResponseYmateb Awgrymedig

              Suggested Response:

              Ymateb Awgrymedig:

              The importance of supporting engagement in activities and experiences that are meaningful and enjoyable

              Pwysigrwydd cefnogi cymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a phrofiadau sy'n ystyrlon ac yn bleserus

              kids painting

              Activities and Experiences

              It's important that children and young people have activities and experiences that are suitable for their age and development stage and give them pleasure. Activities and experiences should be customised to meet the needs of each individual child. Children will learn through play if the activity interests them. As a result, they will concentrate for longer. Using the child-centred learning method, the children will learn by doing rather than being taught.

              Children and young people learn when they:

              • feel safe
              • are stimulated
              • are challenged
              • can relate to others
              • need to make decisions
              • need to explore the environment
              • need to express their feelings.

              The childcare worker needs to support the children during the play process yet it's essential that they don't interfere excessively. By using the child-centred approach, children can benefit from activities and experiences that will fulfil their potential.

              Gweithgareddau a Phrofiadau

              Mae’n bwysig bod plant a phobl ifanc yn cael gweithgareddau a phrofiadau sy’n addas ar gyfer eu hoed a’u cam datblygiad ac sydd yn rhoi pleser iddynt. Mae angen addasu’r gweithgareddau a’r profiadau er mwyn diwallu anghenion pob plentyn unigol. Bydd plant yn dysgu trwy chwarae os yw’r gweithgaredd o ddiddordeb iddynt . Yn sgil hyn byddant yn canolbwyntio am fwy o amser. Trwy ddefnyddio’r dull plentyn-ganolog o ddysgu bydd y plant yn dysgu trwy wneud yn hytrach na chael eu dysgu.

              Mae plant a phobl ifanc yn dysgu pan:

              • fyddant yn teimlo'n ddiogel
              • fyddant yn cael eu hysgogi
              • fyddant yn cael eu herio
              • fyddant yn gallu ymwneud ag eraill
              • fyddant angen gwneud dewisiadau
              • fyddant angen archwilio’r amgylchedd
              • fyddant angen mynegi eu teimladau.

              Mae angen i’r ymarferwr gefnogi’r plant yn ystod y broses chwarae ond eto mae’n hanfodol nad ydynt yn ymyrryd yn ormodol. Trwy ddefnyddio’r dulliau gweithredu plentyn- ganolog gall blant fanteisio ar weithgareddau a phrofiadau a fydd yn cwrdd â’u potensial yn llawn.

              The importance of supporting engagement in activities and experiences that are meaningful and enjoyable

              Drag the activity and place it with the correct statement.

              Pwysigrwydd cefnogi cymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a phrofiadau sy'n ystyrlon ac yn bleserus

              Llusgwch y gweithgaredd a’i osod gyda’r datganiad cywir.

              Activity

              Gweithgaredd

              Why it is important to participate?

              Pam mae'n bwysig cymryd rhan?

              Correct answers

              Atebion cywir

                    Parental responsibility and establishing consent

                    Cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr a chael chydsyniad

                    child running

                    Parental responsibility

                    This means parents/carers' duty and responsibilities towards their children. Although they have rights, they must ensure that they acknowledge their children's moral, physical and emotional well-being. Parental responsibility applies until the child reaches eighteen years old. This is not the legal age in all countries. The Children Act 1989, on parental responsibility, emphasises that parents/carers have a specific duty in raising their children. It states, ‘In the Act “parental responsibility” means all the rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent/carer of a child has in relation to the child and his property.'

                    https://bit.ly/2Fnhjqq

                    Who has parental responsibility?

                    • If both parents/carers are registered on the birth certificate, then both parents/carers have parental responsibility for their child.
                    • The mother has parental responsibility automatically and so does the father if married to the mother. If the father is not married to the mother but is named on the child's birth certificate, he has parental responsibility for the child.
                    • Even if the parents/carers separate, their parental responsibility remains the same.
                    • Carers and adoptive parents/carers may have parental responsibility.
                    • Foster parents/carers cannot have parental responsibility.

                    Under certain circumstances, parental responsibility may change if the child is thought to be in any risk, and this is a decision for the court.

                    Further reading

                    https://bit.ly/2KxCEBN

                    https://bit.ly/2RmxOb3

                    Family/carers consent

                    Family/carers permission must be obtained if the child/young person needs to take part legally in activities or changes that will affect lives. Matters requiring consent are:

                    • medical
                    • educational
                    • where the young person wants to make changes to the body, e.g. a tattoo or piercing
                    • where the young person wants to get married before reaching the legal age of marriage
                    • those involving travelling without an adult present.

                    In a situation where a child in your care needs urgent treatment and it's not possible to contact the parents/carers, e.g. perhaps a child has fallen at school and needs hospital treatment, the Children Act 1989 states that the situation must be dealt with sensibly in order to ensure the child's safety and well-being. Therefore, the parents/carers would need to be contacted as soon as possible and parental consent would HAVE to be obtained, or consent from whoever has parental responsibility for the child, should further hospital treatment be required.

                    Further reading

                    https://bit.ly/2Rn0Xmb

                    Cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr

                    Golyga hyn y dyletswydd a’r cyfrifoldebau sydd gan rieni/gofalwyr tuag at eu plant. Er bod ganddynt hawliau mae’n rhaid iddynt sicrhau eu bod yn cydnabod lles eu plant yn foesol, corfforol ac emosiynol. Bydd cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr yn cael ei arfer nes bod y plentyn yn cyrraedd deunaw mlwydd oed. Nid yw’r oed hwn yn ddilys ym mhob gwlad. Mae Deddf Plant 1989, wrth drafod cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr, yn pwysleisio bod gan rieni/gofalwyr ddyletswydd benodol wrth fagu eu plant. ‘Golyga’r holl hawliau, y dyletswyddau, y pwerau, y cyfrifoldebau a’r awdurdod sydd, yn unol â’r gyfraith, gan riant/gofalwr plentyn mewn perthynas â’r plentyn a’i eiddo’.

                    https://bit.ly/2Fnhjqq

                    Pwy sydd â chyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr?

                    • Os yw’r ddau riant/gofalwr wedi cael eu cofrestru ar y dystysgrif geni mae gan y ddau gyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr dros eu plentyn.
                    • Mae’r fam yn cael cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr yn awtomatig a hefyd y tad os yw’n briod â’r fam. Os nad yw’r tad yn briod â’r fam ond bod ei enw ar dystysgrif geni’r plentyn bydd yn cael cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr dros y plentyn.
                    • Hyd yn oed os yw’r rhieni/gofalwyr yn gwahanu mae'r cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr yn sefyll yr un peth.
                    • Mae gofalwyr a rhieni/gofalwyr mabwysiadol yn medru cael cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr.
                    • Nid yw rhieni/gofalwyr maeth yn medru cael cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr.

                    Mae yna amgylchiadau pryd byddai bydd? cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr yn newid os tybier bod y plentyn mewn unrhyw risg ac mae i fyny i’r llys i benderfynu ar hyn.

                    Darllen pellach

                    https://bit.ly/2N727nk

                    https://bit.ly/2XYGtCW

                    Cydsyniad teuluol

                    Mae’n rhaid cael caniatâd teuluoedd/gofalwyr os yw’r plentyn/ person ifanc angen cymryd rhan yn gyfreithlon mewn gweithgareddau neu newidiadau a fydd yn effeithio bywydau. Mae angen cydsyniad os yw’n fater:

                    • meddygol
                    • addysgol
                    • ble mae’r person ifanc eisiau gwneud newidiadau i’r corff, e.e. tatw neu rhwyllo’r corff
                    • ble mae’r person ifanc eisiau priodi cyn cyrraedd yr oedran cyfreithiol i briodi
                    • sy’n golygu teithio heb oedolyn yn bresennol.

                    Mewn sefyllfa lle mae plentyn yn eich gofal angen triniaeth ar frys ac nid yw’n bosib cysylltu â’r rhieni/gofalwyr, e.e. efallai bod plentyn wedi cwympo yn yr ysgol ac angen triniaeth yn yr ysbyty, dywed Deddf Plant 1989 bod angen delio gyda’ r sefyllfa yn synhwyrol er mwyn sicrhau diogelwch a lles y plentyn. Oherwydd hyn byddai angen cysylltu â’r rhieni/gofalwyr cyn gynted â phosib ac fe fyddai’n RHAID cael cydsyniad rhieni/gofalwyr, neu pwy bynnag sydd â chyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr dros y plentyn petai angen triniaeth ychwanegol yn yr ysbyty.

                    Darllen pellach y lincs isod ddim yn agor

                    https://bit.ly/2RmyNIh

                    Parental responsibility and establishing consent

                    Note on the diagram a few ideas to show why it's important to obtain parental consent when providing care or support.

                    Cyfrifoldeb rhiant/gofalwr a chael cydsyniad

                    Nodwch ar y diagram rai syniadau sy’n dangos pam mae’n bwysig cael cydsyniad rhieni/gofalwyr wrth ddarparu gofal neu gymorth.

                    How many can you think of? Faint y gallwch chi feddwl amdano?

                    Suggested response

                    To receive urgent appropriate treatment.

                    To allow children to participate in physical games.

                    To allow children to go on a trip.

                    To give a child medication.

                    To give a child first aid.

                    To allow children to take part in a wide range of activities and experiences.

                    To meet the child's educational needs.

                    To meet the child's moral and emotional well-being.

                    To avoid conflict.

                    To prevent the misuse of children's pictures.

                    To ensure that children do not participate in physical exercise activities following medical ailments.

                    To record money borrowing to the child.

                    Ymateb Awgrymedig:

                    Derbyn triniaeth briodol ar frys.

                    Caniatáu i'r plant gymryd rhan mewn gemau corfforol.

                    Caniatáu i'r plant fynd ar wibdaith.

                    Rhoi meddyginiaeth i blentyn.

                    Rhoi cymorth cyntaf i blentyn.

                    Caniatáu i'r plant gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a phrofiadau eang.

                    Cwrdd ag anghenion addysgol y plentyn.

                    Cwrdd â lles y plentyn yn foesol ac yn emosiynol.

                    Osgoi gwrthdaro.

                    Atal lluniau plant rhag cael eu camddefnyddio.

                    Sicrhau nad yw plant yn cymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau ymarfer corff yn sgil anhwylderau meddygol.

                    Cofnod o fenthyg arian i’r plentyn.