The importance of being able to take risks with considerations of the well-being of children

Pwysigrwydd cymryd risgiau a hawliau plant i wneud dewisiadau a chymryd risgiau

Role play

Keeping children and young people safe within the setting is the priority. They need a safe environment that is also challenging. An environment with no risks at all will not stimulate or challenge children. They need the opportunity to explore the environment and make decisions for themselves. They need opportunities to solve problems and consider what can happen if they're not careful. Removing all risks within the environment, whether indoors or outdoors, can lead to children getting bored and showing signs of unacceptable behaviour. As a result, children will display more risk taking behaviour which could be dangerous to them and other children around them.

By taking risks children will develop confidence to be able to cope with challenging situations, which contributes to their well-being. Play allows children to take risks and by organising their play they will expand their skills and cope with their ability to control their emotions. This will contribute to the development of self-image and perceptions of self-esteem. They will develop to consider others by thinking of the consequences of their play and what can happen if the play gets out of control.

Children have rights to make decisions and take risks through their play. In having these opportunities, children and young people will be able to maximise their enjoyment of the environment whilst removing obvious risks.

The 'United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child' states in article 31: 'All children have a right to relax and play, and to join in a wide range of activities.'

Further reading:
https://bit.ly/2KpyAU4

The Government's Seven Core Aims based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child also note that children should:

  • have access to a comprehensive range of education, training and learning opportunities, including opportunities to build personal and social skills
  • have access to a range of play, leisure, sporting and cultural activities.

https://bit.ly/2KUAfQG

Giving these rights to children and young people will mean that they have opportunities to manage risks effectively, allowing them to safely learn through play. They can learn a range of skills that will help them in future such as:

  • building resilience
  • the ability to assess their abilities
  • being inventive
  • using hand tools confidently and safely
  • understanding the consequences of their actions
  • developing confidence
  • developing independence
  • being creative
  • showing curiosity
  • being enthusiastic.

Mae cadw plant a phobl ifanc yn ddiogel o fewn y lleoliad yn flaenoriaeth. Maent angen amgylchedd diogel sydd hefyd yn heriol. Ni fydd amgylchedd heb risgiau o gwbl yn symbylu nac yn herio plant. Mae angen iddynt gael cyfle i archwilio’r amgylchedd a gwneud penderfyniadau dros eu hunain. Maent angen cyfleoedd i ddatrys problemau ac ystyried beth all ddigwydd wrth beidio â bod yn ofalus. Gall dileu pob risg o fewn yr amgylchedd, boed tu mewn neu du allan yn yr awyr agored arwain at blant yn diflasu gan arddangos arwyddion o ymddygiad annerbyniol. Yn sgil hyn gwelir plant yn arddangos ymddygiad mwy mentrus allai brofi yn beryglus iddynt hwy a phlant eraill o’u hamgylch.

Wrth gymryd risgiau bydd plant yn datblygu hyder i fedru ymdopi â sefyllfaoedd heriol, sy’n cyfrannu tuag at eu lles. Mae chwarae yn caniatáu i blant gymryd risgiau a thrwy drefnu eu chwarae byddant yn ehangu eu sgiliau ac ymdopi gyda’u gallu i reoli eu hemosiynau. Bydd hyn yn cyfrannu at ddatblygiad hunanddelwedd a theimladau o hunan-barch. Byddant yn datblygu i ystyried eraill drwy feddwl am ganlyniadau eu chwarae a’r hyn y gall ddigwydd os yw’r chwarae yn mynd allan o reolaeth.

Mae gan blant hawliau i wneud penderfyniadau a chymryd risgiau trwy eu chwarae. Wrth gael y cyfleoedd hyn bydd plant a phobl ifanc yn medru mwynhau’r amgylchedd i’r eithaf gan ddileu risgiau amlwg.

Dywed ‘Confensiwn y Cenhedloedd Unedig ar Hawliau’r Plentyn’ yn erthygl 31: ‘Mae gan blant yr hawl i ymlacio a chwarae ac ymuno mewn ystod eang o weithgareddau’
https://bit.ly/2J3VdKH

Mae saith nod craidd y Llywodraeth sy’n seiliedig ar Gonfensiwn y Cenhedloedd Unedig ar hawliau’r Plentyn hefyd yn nodi y dylai plant:

  • gael cyfle i fanteisio ar amrywiaeth eang o gyfleoedd addysg, hyfforddiant a dysgu, gan gynnwys cyfleoedd i feithrin sgiliau personol a chymdeithasol.
  • gael manteisio ar amrediad o weithgareddau chwarae, gweithgareddau hamdden, chwaraeon a gweithgareddau diwylliannol.

https://bit.ly/2MWCrKl

Trwy roi’r hawliau yma i blant a phobl ifanc byddant yn cael cyfleoedd i reoli risgiau yn effeithiol gan ganiatáu iddynt ddysgu trwy chwarae yn ddiogel. Gallant ddysgu amryw o sgiliau a fydd o gymorth iddynt yn y dyfodol:

  • Adeiladu gwytnwch
  • Medru asesu eu galluoedd
  • Bod yn ddyfeisgar
  • Defnyddio offer llaw yn hyderus ac yn ddiogel
  • Deall canlyniad eu gweithred
  • Datblygu hyder
  • Datblygu annibyniaeth
  • Bod yn greadigol
  • Dangos chwilfrydedd
  • Bod yn frwdfrydig

The rights of children to make choices and take risks

Read the statements and drag them into the correct column.

Cymryd risgiau a hawliau plant i wneud dewisiadau a chymryd risgiau

Darllenwch y datganiadau a’u llusgo i’r golofn gywir



      The actions needed when supporting children to take risks, taking into consideration their age, stage of development, the environment and life experiences including parental involvement and responsibility.

      Sut i weithredu wrth gefnogi plant i gymryd risgiau, gan ystyried eu hoedran, cyfnod datblygiad, yr amgylchedd a phrofiadau mewn bywyd gan gynnwys cyfranogiad a chyfrifoldeb rhieni/gofalwyr

      Child playing on monkey bars

      The challenge is to balance the need for safety against the need for children and young people to explore risks. Babies and children are naturally curious and at risk of harm because they're unaware of danger. Babies and children love to explore the world around them and an early years childcare worker needs to ensure that they explore within safe boundaries. They need to think what could go wrong and consider ways to prevent or minimise the dangers. Recording a risk assessment helps the early years childcare workers to become aware of what they need to do to keep children safe. The childcare worker has a role to ensure that everyone encounters a variety of risks that will contribute to the development of their well-being:

      • Physical risks - This can be exciting activities for the child where they learn about their bodies' limitations and that they are at risk of physical harm.
      • Emotional risks - The child asks themselves if they will be able to succeed in doing something. The feeling of thinking whether they will achieve the challenge or not. The child will develop more confidence after success.
      • Behavioural risks - Children may behave negatively which will affect how they deal with risks. Overconfident children may think they can achieve tasks beyond their ability and have an accident as a result. Other children may follow them thinking the situation is safe. Children need to learn the cause and effect of their behaviour.
      • Environmental risks - Children like to take risks in an environment with which they're familiar. Here they know the limits of their abilities and learn to respect the environment.

      The early years childcare worker is the most important influence in terms of accident prevention but in order to enable children and young people to manage their own risks they need to step back and take a supervisory role. A number of factors must be considered when supporting children to take risks.

      Age and development stage: Not all children develop on the same scale and it must be ensured that the resources and activities within care and education settings for children and young people are suitable for all children. The activities need to give the children sufficient opportunities to be able to take risks safely. We cannot force children to do anything beyond their capability or encourage them to go a step further than where they feel safe.

      Environment: childcare workers have a duty of care to ensure the environment is suitable and safe for the children in their care. Not all activities and areas in the setting are suitable for use with all children and they need to be looked at and modified so all children can participate safely. As the children develop and find out what they can master with confidence, the childcare worker will be able to modify these limits as the children's skills and abilities progress.

      Experiences: Some children have had more experience than others of encountering various risks in their play. This can depend on where the children play outside of their settings. They may spend time in outdoor areas such as forests, gardens or parks where they have opportunities to explore and investigate the environment.

      Participation and parental responsibility: Parents/carers have a responsibility to protect their children from any harm. Some parents/carers are overprotective when their children want to take risks. This is because they're not completely aware of the positive results children get by coping with managing their own risks. Parents/carers don't want their children to be harmed so they're keen to protect them from dangers.

      Yr her i gweithwyr gofal plant yw cydbwyso’r angen am ddiogelwch yn erbyn yr angen i blant a phobl ifanc archwilio risgiau. Mae babanod a phlant yn naturiol chwilfrydig ac mewn risg o niwed gan nad ydynt yn ymwybodol o berygl. Mae babanod a phlant wrth eu bodd yn archwilio'r byd o'u hamgylch ac mae angen i gweithiwr gofal plant blynyddoedd cynnar sicrhau eu bod yn archwilio o fewn terfynau diogel. Mae angen meddwl beth allai fynd o'i le ac ystyried ffyrdd i atal neu leihau'r peryglon. Mae cynnal cofnod asesiad risg yn helpu'r gweithwyr gofal plant blynyddoedd cynnar i ddod yn ymwybodol o'r hyn y mae angen iddynt ei wneud i gadw plant yn ddiogel. Mae gan yr ymarferwr rôl i sicrhau bod pawb yn dod ar draws amrywiaeth o risgiau a fydd yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygu eu llesiant:

      • Risgiau corfforol - gall fod yn weithgareddau cyffrous i’r plentyn lle maent yn dysgu am gyfyngiadau eu cyrff a’u bod mewn risg o gael niwed corfforol.
      • Risgiau emosiynol - mae’r plentyn yn holi ei hun a fydd yn gallu llwyddo i wneud rhywbeth. Y teimlad o feddwl a fydd yn cyflawni’r her ai peidio. Bydd y plentyn yn datblygu’n fwy hyderus yn dilyn ei lwyddiant.
      • Risgiau ymddygiadol - gall blant ymddwyn yn negyddol a fydd yn effeithio ar y ffordd maent yn delio gyda risgiau. Gall blant sydd yn or-hyderus feddwl eu bod yn medru cyflawni tasgau tu hwnt i’w gallu ac yn cael damwain o ganlyniad. Efallai bydd plant eraill yn eu dilyn gan feddwl bod y sefyllfa yn un ddiogel. Mae angen i blant ddysgu achos ac effaith eu hymddygiad.
      • Risgiau amgylcheddol - mae plant yn hoffi cymryd risgiau o fewn amgylchedd sydd yn adnabyddus iddynt. Yma maent yn gwybod cyfyngiadau eu galluoedd ac yn dysgu bod angen parchu’r amgylchedd.

      Yr gweithiwr gofal plant blynyddoedd cynnar yw'r dylanwad pwysicaf o ran atal damweiniau ond er mwyn galluogi plant a phobl ifanc i reoli risgiau eu hunain mae angen iddynt gamu nôl gamu'n ôl?? a chymryd rôl goruchwylwyr. Mae’n rhaid ystyried nifer o ffactorau wrth gefnogi plant i gymryd risgiau.

      Oedran a cham datblygiad: Nid yw pob plentyn yn datblygu ar yr un raddfa ac mae angen sicrhau bod yr adnoddau a’r gweithgareddau o fewn lleoliadau gofal ac addysg plant a phobl ifanc yn addas ar gyfer pob plentyn. Mae angen i’r gweithgareddau roi digon o gyfleoedd i’r plant fedru cymryd risgiau yn ddiogel . Ni allwn orfodi plant i wneud dim sydd tu hwnt i’w gallu neu eu hannog i fynd gam ymhellach na ble maent yn teimlo’n ddiogel.

      Yr amgylchedd: Mae gan gweithwyr gofal plant ddyletswydd gofal i sicrhau bod yr amgylchedd yn addas ac yn ddiogel ar gyfer y plant yn eu gofal. Nid yw pob gweithgaredd ac ardal yn y lleoliad yn addas i'w defnyddio gyda'r holl blant ac mae angen edrych arnynt a’u haddasu fel bod pob plentyn yn medru cymryd rhan yn ddiogel. Wrth i’r plant ddatblygu a darganfod beth maent yn meistroli’n hyderus bydd yr gweithiwr gofal plant yn medru addasu'r terfynau hyn wrth i sgiliau a galluoedd y plant gynyddu.

      Profiadau: Mae rhai plant wedi cael mwy o brofiad nag eraill gan ddod ar draws risgiau niferus yn eu chwarae. Gall hyn ddibynnu ar ble mae’r plant yn chwarae tu allan i’w lleoliadau. Efallai eu bod yn treulio amser mewn ardaloedd allanol megis coedwigoedd, gerddi neu barciau ble maent yn cael cyfleoedd i archwilio ac ymchwilio’r amgylchedd.

      Cyfranogiad a chyfrifoldeb rhieni/gofalwyr: Mae cyfrifoldeb gan rieni/gofalwyr i ddiogelu eu plant rhag unrhyw niwed. Gwelir bod rhai rhieni/gofalwyr yn or amddiffynnol pan fydd eu plant am gymryd risgiau. Mae hyn oherwydd nad ydynt yn hollol ymwybodol o’r canlyniadau positif a gaiff plant wrth ymdopi â rheoli risgiau eu hunain. Nid yw rhieni/gofalwyr am i unrhyw niwed ddod i’w plant ac felly maent yn awyddus i’w hamddiffyn rhag peryglon.

      The actions needed when supporting children to take risks, taking into consideration their age, stage of development, the environment and life experiences including parental involvement and responsibility.

      Complete the activity below.

      Sut i weithredu wrth gefnogi plant i gymryd risgiau, gan ystyried eu hoedran, cyfnod datblygiad, yr amgylchedd a phrofiadau mewn bywyd gan gynnwys cyfranogiad a chyfrifoldeb rhieni/gofalwyr

      Cwblhewch y gweithgaredd isod.

      Risk benefit assessment

      Asesu risg a budd

      5-10 years old

      It's essential that childcare workers ensure that children's well-being is met. One way of doing this is by having a balance between safety and risk.

      The term 'risk benefit assessment' means looking at the benefits for children participating in challenging activities and experiences with elements of risk. This will ensure that the balance between safety and risk is acknowledged and children have opportunities to dare and challenge themselves as they encounter new experiences. There is a specific form to fill in for this which supports the balanced method of risk control. These will be filled in with a focus on the concept of play.

      Children having accidents doesn't mean that the activity is too risky. It shows that the child needs to assess the risk for themselves to prevent the accident from happening again. Removing all risks would prevent the child from discovering dangers and how to cope with them while playing. It's important that the childcare worker uses common sense and considers the age and development stage of the children in their care. A specific risk may be beneficial to one child but a danger to another.

      It's necessary to give children these opportunities when young in order to reduce or prevent accidents as they grow older. Offering such an environment encourages the children's physical and emotional development as they challenge their abilities and take pride in what they achieve.

      Further reading:
      https://www.ltl.org.uk/spaces/ltlriskbenefit.php
      http://www.playwales.org.uk/eng/home

      Mae’n hanfodol bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn sicrhau cwrdd â lles plant. Un ffordd o arfer hyn yw drwy gael cydbwysedd rhwng diogelwch a risg.

      Mae’r term ‘asesu risg a budd’ yn golygu bod angen edrych ar y buddiannau y caiff blant wrth gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a phrofiadau heriol sydd ag elfennau o risg. Bydd hyn yn sicrhau bod y cydbwysedd rhwng diogelwch a risg yn cael ei adnabod gan roi cyfleoedd i blant fentro a herio eu hunain wrth ddod ar draws profiadau newydd. Mae yna ffurflen benodol i’w llenwi ar gyfer hyn sydd yn cefnogi’r dull cytbwys o reoli risg. Bydd y rhain yn cael eu llenwi gan ganolbwyntio ar y cysyniad chwarae.

      Nid yw’r ffaith fod plant yn cael damweiniau yn golygu bod y gweithgaredd yn ormod o risg. Mae’n dangos bod angen i’r plentyn asesu’r risg ei hunan er mwyn atal y ddamwain rhag digwydd eto. Byddai dileu pob risg yn atal y plentyn rhag darganfod peryglon a sut i ymdopi â hwy wrth chwarae. Mae’n bwysig bod yr ymarferwr yn defnyddio synnwyr cyffredin gan ystyried oedran a cham datblygiad y plant yn eu gofal. Gall risg penodol fod yn fuddiol i un plentyn tra gall fod yn berygl i blentyn arall.

      Mae’n angenrheidiol rhoi’r cyfleoedd yma i blant pan maent yn ifanc er mwyn lleihau neu atal damweiniau wrth iddynt dyfu’n hŷn. Mae cynnig amgylchedd o’r fath yn annog y plant i ddatblygu’n gorfforol ac yn emosiynol wrth iddynt herio eu galluoedd ac ennill balchder yn yr hyn maent yn cyflawni.

      Darllen pellach
      http://www.chwaraecymru.org.uk/cym/cartref
      https://www.ltl.org.uk/spaces/ltlriskbenefit.php

      Risk benefit assessment

      Think of this activity or experience as an example: Identify the benefits of using a tree swing to play.

      Asesu risg a budd

      Meddyliwch am y gweithgaredd neu brofiad hwn: siglen mewn coeden a nodwch fuddiannau o’i defnyddio wrth chwarae.

      'Tree swing' benefits Buddiannau ‘siglen mewn coeden’

      Follow this link to check your answers.

      https://bit.ly/2MUrdpF

      Read on to see the risks of using a tree swing.

      Dilynwch y cyswllt yma er mwyn gwirio eich atebion.

      https://bit.ly/2WRLUSG

      Darllenwch ymhellach i weld beth yw’r risgiau o ddefnyddio siglen mewn coeden.

      Positive outcomes

      Canlyniadau cadarnhaol

      Children laughing

      By taking risks children will develop positive outcomes that will aid their development. 'Positive outcomes' can include health, education, high self-esteem, positive identity and children and young people's participation in the community. As well as conforming to the seven core aims based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Government has an aim of ensuring that all children, regardless of ability and background, have the right to meet the five outcomes that make up 'Every Child Matters'; these are to:

      • Be healthy
      • Stay safe
      • Enjoy and achieve
      • Make a positive contribution
      • Achieve economic well-being

      childcare workers have a duty to ensure that children have opportunities to achieve these outcomes. Considering the concept of risk taking, the appropriate elements may be adopted in order to meet the five outcomes:

      Be healthy: Children can consider how their health is affected by taking part in activities with elements of risk. Children need to adopt an active lifestyle which contributes to physical, emotional, social and well-being development. By discussing with children they will come to understand how various activities keep them healthy.

      Stay safe: It's essential that childcare workers ensure that the environment is safe for children and young people. The children also need to consider and respect the environment, developing an understanding of how the environment can change. For instance, wet weather can change surfaces in the outdoor area, and constant use of resources can influence the ability to use them effectively.

      Enjoy and achieve: Children will enjoy and achieve this by taking part in activities and events in the setting as well as the community. They can make decisions while they play and the childcare worker needs to observe their play to understand their needs and recognise their abilities. Taking risks will be enjoyable if the child has an opportunity to pursue their interests and consider previous experiences.

      Make a positive contribution: Participating and playing with other children creates opportunities to share ideas and listen to the opinions of others. They can assess risks together and come to decisions on how to solve problems. Through this, they will learn how to work in a team and use the directions of others as they play.

      Achieve economic well-being: By assessing and taking risks children will develop confidence and self-esteem to be able to cope with challenging scenarios. This will enable them to play safely as they're aware of what can happen if they're not careful. By following the five outcomes, children will achieve economic well-being and develop independently towards adulthood. They will feel satisfaction as they succeed with tasks and be able to adjust scenarios to promote further learning.

      Wrth gymryd risgiau bydd plant yn datblygu canlyniadau cadarnhaol a fydd o gymorth iddynt wrth ddatblygu. Gall ‘canlyniadau cadarnhaol’ gynnwys iechyd, addysg, hunan-barch uchel, hunaniaeth bositif a chyfranogiad plant a phobl ifanc yn y gymuned. Yn ogystal â chydymffurfio â’r saith nod craidd sydd yn seiliedig ar Gonfensiwn Y Cenhedloedd Unedig ar Hawliau’r plentyn, mae gan y Llywodraeth nod i sicrhau bod gan pob plentyn, beth bynnag eu gallu a’u cefndir yr hawl i gwrdd â phum deilliant sydd yn rhan o ‘Every Child Matters’ sef:

      • Bod yn iach
      • Cadw’n ddiogel
      • Mwynhau a chyflawni
      • Gwneud cyfraniad positif
      • Cyflawni o ran lles economaidd

      Mae dyletswydd gan yr gweithwyr gofal plant i sicrhau bod plant yn cael cyfleoedd i gyflawni’r deilliannau hyn. Gan ystyried y cysyniad o gymryd risg gellir mabwysiadu’r elfennau priodol er mwyn cwrdd â’r pum deilliant:

      Bod yn iach: Gall blant ystyried sut mae eu hiechyd yn cael ei effeithio wrth gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau sydd ag elfennau o risg. Mae angen i blant fabwysiadu dull o fyw bywiog sydd yn cyfrannu tuag at ddatblygiad corfforol, emosiynol, cymdeithasol a llesiant. Wrth drafod gyda phlant byddant yn dod i ddeall sut mae gweithgareddau amrywiol yn eu cadw’n iach.

      Cadw’n ddiogel: Mae’n hanfodol bod gweithwyr gofal plant yn sicrhau bod yr amgylchedd yn ddiogel i blant a phoblifanc. Mae hefyd angen i’r plant ystyried a pharchu’r amgylchedd gan ddatblygu’r ddealltwriaeth o sut mae’r amgylchedd yn gallu newid. Er enghraifft, gall dywydd gwlyb newid arwynebau yn yr ardal allanol, a gall defnydd cyson o adnoddau ddylanwadu ar y gallu i’w defnyddio yn effeithiol.

      Mwynhau a chyflawni: Bydd plant yn mwynhau a chyflawni hyn drwy gymryd rhan mewn gweithgareddau a digwyddiadau yn y lleoliad yn ogystal ag yn y gymuned. Byddant yn cael gwneud dewisiadau wrth chwarae ac mae angen i’r ymarferwr arsylwi eu chwarae er mwyn deall eu hanghenion ac adnabod eu galluoedd. Bydd cymryd risgiau yn fwynhad os yw’r plentyn yn cael cyfle i ddilyn ei ddiddordebau ac ystyried ei brofiadau blaenorol.

      Gwneud cyfraniad positif: Wrth gymryd rhan a chwarae gyda phlant eraill mae plant yn cael cyfleoedd i rannu syniadau a gwrando ar farn eraill. Byddant yn medru asesu risgiau gyda’i gilydd a dod i benderfyniadau ar sut i ddatrys problemau. Trwy hyn byddant yn dysgu sut i weithio mewn tîm a defnyddio cyfarwyddiadau eraill wrth chwarae.

      Cyflawni o ran lles economaidd: Wrth asesu a chymryd risgiau bydd plant yn datblygu hyder a hunan-barch i fedru ymdopi â sefyllfaoedd heriol. Bydd hyn yn eu galluogi i chwarae’n ddiogel gan fod yn ymwybodol o beth all ddigwydd wrth beidio bod yn ofalus. Trwy ddilyn y pum deilliant bydd plant yn llwyddo o ran lles economaidd gan ddatblygu yn annibynnol tuag at oedolaeth. Byddant yn teimlo bodlonrwydd wrth lwyddo gyda thasgau ac yn medru addasu i sefyllfaoedd i hyrwyddo dysgu pellach.

      How can risk-taking achieve the five positive outcomes?

      Sut mae cymryd risgiau yn gallu bodloni’r pum deilliant canlyniadau cadarnhaol?

      Question 1

      Cwestiwn 1

      Can children keep themselves healthy by taking risks?

      Ydy plant yn medru cadw eu hunain yn iach drwy gymryd risgiau?

      Yes, by:

      • Playing outside in all weathers
      • Healthy eating to get energy
      • Physical play
      • Exercise

      Ydyn, trwy:

      • Chwarae allan ym mhob tywydd
      • Bwyta’n iach er mwyn cael egni
      • Chwarae corfforol
      • Ymarfer corff

      Question 2

      Cwestiwn 2

      How can risk-taking keep children safe?

      Sut all cymryd risgiau gadw plant yn ddiogel?

      • They consider dangers
      • Assess risks
      • Consider their ability
      • What are the consequences
      • Problem solving
      • Maent yn ystyried peryglon
      • Asesu risgiau
      • Ystyried eu gallu.
      • Beth fydd y canlyniadau
      • Datrys problemau

      Question 3

      Cwestiwn 3

      How can taking risks ensure that children enjoy and achieve?

      Sut all cymryd risgiau sicrhau fod plant yn mwynhau a chyflawni?

      • Participation
      • Decision making
      • Consider their experiences
      • Pursue their interests
      • Appropriate behaviour
      • Cymryd rhan
      • Gwneud dewisiadau
      • Ystyried eu profiadau
      • Dilyn eu diddordebau
      • Ymddwyn yn briodol

      Question 4

      Cwestiwn 4

      Children need to make positive contributions. How is this possible through risk-taking?

      Mae angen i blant wneud cyfraniadau positif. Sut mae hyn yn bosib trwy gymryd risgiau?

      • Participation
      • Playing with others
      • Considering the opinions and feelings of others
      • Listening to the ideas of others
      • Being a member of a team
      • Contribution in the community
      • Cymryd rhan
      • Chwarae gydag eraill
      • Ystyried barn a theimladau eraill
      • Gwrando ar syniadau eraill
      • Bod yn aelod o dîm
      • Cyfraniad yn y gymuned

      Question 5

      Cwestiwn 5

      How does risk-taking ensure that children achieve economic well-being?

      Sut bydd cymryd risgiau yn sicrhau bod plant yn cyflawni o ran eu lles economaidd?

      • Developing confidence
      • Developing self-esteem
      • Becoming independent
      • Feeling safe
      • Feeling satisfaction
      • Understanding and adjusting scenarios
      • Datblygu hyder
      • Datblygu hunan-barch
      • Dod yn annibynnol
      • Teimlo’n ddiogel
      • Teimlo bodlonrwydd
      • Deall ac addasu i sefyllfaoedd